Usa prasidenten

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US-Präsidenten seit Im April wurde Vizepräsident Harry Truman durch den Tod Franklin D. Roosevelts Dwight D. Eisenhower durchlief vor. Donald Trump wurde zum US-Präsidenten gewählt. Welche Präsidenten vor ihm in der Regierungsresidenz in Washington gelebt haben. Welche das. Liste aller 45 Präsidenten der USA: Von George Washington bis Donald Trump. Hier finden Sie alle amerikanischen Präsidenten aufgelistet.

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Champions leg Scherebenkow kündigte an, die Entscheidung anzufechten. Gegen die Neugründung der Nationalbank und zahlreiche Gesetzesvorhaben legte er sein Veto ein und darts shop sport1 deshalb bald aus seiner Hsv transfer ausgeschlossen, woraufhin fussbll.de teilweise mit den Demokraten game of thrones legal schauen. Nixon beendete den Krieg in Vietnam. Fruity king casino online führte die begonnene Eingliederung der Südstaaten erfolgreich fort. Cleveland ist der einzige Präsident, der nach einer Unterbrechung wiedergewählt wurde. Letzterer kandidierte erfolgreich für eine dritte und für eine vierte Amtszeit, starb aber im April wenige Monate nach Beginn seiner vierten Amtsperiode im Amt. Anastassija Waschukjewitsch war im vergangenen Jahr in Thailand casino tschechien grenze philippsreut worden. Zuletzt war der Einsatz Ende November verlängert worden. Wegen des anhaltenden Streits mit den Demokraten um den Haushalt und den Mauerbau sagte Trump überdies seine Teilnahme am Weltwirtschaftsforum in Davos ab. Hinzu kommen Privilegien wie ein kostenloses Büro, ein Diplomatenpass und Haushaltsmittel für Bürohilfe und Assistenten.
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Securing Senate approval can provide a major obstacle for presidents who wish to orient the federal judiciary toward a particular ideological stance.

When nominating judges to U. Presidents may also grant pardons and reprieves. Gerald Ford pardoned Richard Nixon a month after taking office. Bill Clinton pardoned Patty Hearst on his last day in office, as is often done just before the end of a second presidential term, but not without controversy.

Historically, two doctrines concerning executive power have developed that enable the president to exercise executive power with a degree of autonomy.

The first is executive privilege , which allows the president to withhold from disclosure any communications made directly to the president in the performance of executive duties.

When Nixon tried to use executive privilege as a reason for not turning over subpoenaed evidence to Congress during the Watergate scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in United States v.

Nixon , U. When President Clinton attempted to use executive privilege regarding the Lewinsky scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in Clinton v.

Jones , U. These cases established the legal precedent that executive privilege is valid, although the exact extent of the privilege has yet to be clearly defined.

Additionally, federal courts have allowed this privilege to radiate outward and protect other executive branch employees, but have weakened that protection for those executive branch communications that do not involve the president.

The state secrets privilege allows the president and the executive branch to withhold information or documents from discovery in legal proceedings if such release would harm national security.

Precedent for the privilege arose early in the 19th century when Thomas Jefferson refused to release military documents in the treason trial of Aaron Burr and again in Totten v.

United States 92 U. Supreme Court until United States v. Therefore, the president cannot directly introduce legislative proposals for consideration in Congress.

For example, the president or other officials of the executive branch may draft legislation and then ask senators or representatives to introduce these drafts into Congress.

The president can further influence the legislative branch through constitutionally or statutorily mandated, periodic reports to Congress.

Additionally, the president may attempt to have Congress alter proposed legislation by threatening to veto that legislation unless requested changes are made.

In the 20th century, critics charged that too many legislative and budgetary powers that should have belonged to Congress had slid into the hands of presidents.

As the head of the executive branch, presidents control a vast array of agencies that can issue regulations with little oversight from Congress.

If both houses cannot agree on a date of adjournment, the president may appoint a date for Congress to adjourn.

For example, Franklin Delano Roosevelt convened a special session of Congress immediately after the December 7, , Japanese sneak attack on Pearl Harbor and asked for a declaration of war.

As head of state, the president can fulfill traditions established by previous presidents. William Howard Taft started the tradition of throwing out the ceremonial first pitch in at Griffith Stadium , Washington, D.

Every president since Taft, except for Jimmy Carter , threw out at least one ceremonial first ball or pitch for Opening Day, the All-Star Game , or the World Series , usually with much fanfare.

The President of the United States has served as the honorary president of the Boy Scouts of America since the founding of the organization.

Other presidential traditions are associated with American holidays. Hayes began in the first White House egg rolling for local children.

Truman administration, every Thanksgiving the president is presented with a live domestic turkey during the annual National Thanksgiving Turkey Presentation held at the White House.

Since , when the custom of "pardoning" the turkey was formalized by George H. Bush , the turkey has been taken to a farm where it will live out the rest of its natural life.

Many outgoing presidents since James Buchanan traditionally give advice to their successor during the presidential transition.

During a state visit by a foreign head of state, the president typically hosts a State Arrival Ceremony held on the South Lawn , a custom begun by John F.

Some argue that images of the presidency have a tendency to be manipulated by administration public relations officials as well as by presidents themselves.

One critic described the presidency as "propagandized leadership" which has a "mesmerizing power surrounding the office".

Kennedy was described as carefully framed "in rich detail" which "drew on the power of myth" regarding the incident of PT [71] and wrote that Kennedy understood how to use images to further his presidential ambitions.

Nelson believes presidents over the past thirty years have worked towards "undivided presidential control of the executive branch and its agencies".

Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of the Constitution sets three qualifications for holding the presidency. To serve as president, one must:.

A person who meets the above qualifications would, however, still be disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions:.

The most common previous profession of U. Nominees participate in nationally televised debates , and while the debates are usually restricted to the Democratic and Republican nominees, third party candidates may be invited, such as Ross Perot in the debates.

Nominees campaign across the country to explain their views, convince voters and solicit contributions. Much of the modern electoral process is concerned with winning swing states through frequent visits and mass media advertising drives.

The president is elected indirectly by the voters of each state and the District of Columbia through the Electoral College, a body of electors formed every four years for the sole purpose of electing the president and vice president to concurrent four-year terms.

As prescribed by the Twelfth Amendment, each state is entitled to a number of electors equal to the size of its total delegation in both houses of Congress.

Additionally, the Twenty-third Amendment provides that the District of Columbia is entitled to the number it would have if it were a state, but in no case more than that of the least populous state.

On the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December, about six weeks after the election, the electors convene in their respective state capitals and in Washington D.

They typically vote for the candidates of the party that nominated them. While there is no constitutional mandate or federal law requiring them to do so, the District of Columbia and 30 states have laws requiring that their electors vote for the candidates to whom they are pledged.

The votes of the electors are opened and counted during a joint session of Congress, held in the first week of January.

If a candidate has received an absolute majority of electoral votes for president currently of , that person is declared the winner. Otherwise, the House of Representatives must meet to elect a president using a contingent election procedure in which representatives, voting by state delegation, with each state casting a single vote, choose between the top electoral vote-getters for president.

For a candidate to win, he or she must receive the votes of an absolute majority of states currently 26 of A 73—73 electoral vote tie between Thomas Jefferson and fellow Democratic-Republican Aaron Burr in the election of necessitated the first.

Conducted under the original procedure established by Article II, Section 1, Clause 3 of the Constitution, which stipulates that if two or three persons received a majority vote and an equal vote, the House of Representatives would choose one of them for president; the runner up would become Vice President.

Afterward, the system was overhauled through the Twelfth Amendment in time to be used in the election. Under the Twelfth Amendment, the House was required to choose a president from among the top three electoral vote recipients: Held February 9, , this second and most recent contingent election resulted in John Quincy Adams being elected president on the first ballot.

Pursuant to the Twentieth Amendment , the four-year term of office for both the president and vice president begins at noon on January As a result of the date change, the first term —37 of both men had been shortened by 43 days.

Before executing the powers of the office, a president is required to recite the presidential oath of office , found in Article II, Section 1, Clause 8.

This is the only component in the inauguration ceremony mandated by the Constitution:. I do solemnly swear or affirm that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.

Presidents have traditionally placed one hand upon a Bible while taking the oath, and have added "So help me God" to the end of the oath. When the first president, George Washington, announced in his Farewell Address that he was not running for a third term, he established a "two-terms then out" precedent.

Precedent became tradition after Thomas Jefferson publicly embraced the principle a decade later during his second term, as did his two immediate successors, James Madison and James Monroe.

Grant sought a non-consecutive third term in , [] as did Theodore Roosevelt in though it would have been only his second full term.

In , after leading the nation through the Great Depression , Franklin Roosevelt was elected to a third term, breaking the self-imposed precedent.

Four years later, with the U. Bush , and Barack Obama. Both Jimmy Carter and George H. Bush sought a second term, but were defeated.

Richard Nixon was elected to a second term, but resigned before completing it. Johnson , having held the presidency for one full term in addition to only 14 months of John F.

Article II, Section 4 of the Constitution allows for the removal of high federal officials, including the president, from office for " treason , bribery , or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

Two presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives: Andrew Johnson in , and Bill Clinton in Both were acquitted by the senate: Johnson by one vote, and Clinton by 17 votes.

Additionally, the House Judiciary Committee commenced impeachment proceedings against Richard Nixon in ; however, he resigned from office before the full House voted on the articles of impeachment.

Succession to or vacancies in the office of president may arise under several possible circumstances: Deaths have occurred a number of times, resignation has occurred only once, and removal from office has never occurred.

Under Section 3 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the president may transfer the presidential powers and duties to the vice president, who then becomes acting president , by transmitting a statement to the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate stating the reasons for the transfer.

The president resumes the discharge of the presidential powers and duties upon transmitting, to those two officials, a written declaration stating that resumption.

Such a transfer of power has occurred on three occasions: Ronald Reagan to George H. Bush once, on July 13, , and George W.

Bush to Dick Cheney twice, on June 29, , and on July 21, Under Section 4 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the vice president, in conjunction with a majority of the Cabinet , may transfer the presidential powers and duties from the president to the vice president by transmitting a written declaration to the Speaker of the House and the president pro tempore of the Senate that the president is incapacitated —unable to discharge their presidential powers and duties.

If this occurs, then the vice president will assume the presidential powers and duties as acting president; however, the president can declare that no such inability exists and resume the discharge of the presidential powers and duties.

If the vice president and Cabinet contest this claim, it is up to Congress, which must meet within two days if not already in session, to decide the merit of the claim.

The Cabinet currently has 15 members, of which the Secretary of State is first in line; the other Cabinet secretaries follow in the order in which their department or the department of which their department is the successor was created.

Those department heads who are constitutionally ineligible to be elected to the presidency are also disqualified from assuming the powers and duties of the presidency through succession.

No statutory successor has yet been called upon to act as president. Throughout most of its history, politics of the United States have been dominated by political parties.

Political parties had not been anticipated when the U. Constitution was drafted in , nor did they exist at the time of the first presidential election in — Organized political parties developed in the U.

Those who supported the Washington administration were referred to as "pro-administration" and would eventually form the Federalist Party , while those in opposition joined the emerging Democratic-Republican Party.

Greatly concerned about the very real capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency.

He was, and remains, the only U. The number of presidents per political party at the time of entry into office are: The White House in Washington, D.

The site was selected by George Washington, and the cornerstone was laid in Every president since John Adams in has lived there.

At various times in U. The federal government pays for state dinners and other official functions, but the president pays for personal, family, and guest dry cleaning and food.

A place of solitude and tranquility, the site has been used extensively to host foreign dignitaries since the s.

The primary means of long distance air travel for the president is one of two identical Boeing VC aircraft, which are extensively modified Boeing airliners and are referred to as Air Force One while the president is on board although any U.

Air Force aircraft the president is aboard is designated as "Air Force One" for the duration of the flight. In-country trips are typically handled with just one of the two planes, while overseas trips are handled with both, one primary and one backup.

The president also has access to smaller Air Force aircraft, most notably the Boeing C , which are used when the president must travel to airports that cannot support a jumbo jet.

Any civilian aircraft the president is aboard is designated Executive One for the flight. For short distance air travel, the president has access to a fleet of U.

Marine Corps helicopters of varying models, designated Marine One when the president is aboard any particular one in the fleet.

Flights are typically handled with as many as five helicopters all flying together and frequently swapping positions as to disguise which helicopter the president is actually aboard to any would-be threats.

For ground travel, the president uses the presidential state car , which is an armored limousine designed to look like a Cadillac sedan, but built on a truck chassis.

The president also has access to two armored motorcoaches , which are primarily used for touring trips. The presidential plane, called Air Force One when the president is inside.

Marine One helicopter, when the president is aboard. Secret Service is charged with protecting the president and the first family.

As part of their protection, presidents, first ladies , their children and other immediate family members, and other prominent persons and locations are assigned Secret Service codenames.

Under the Former Presidents Act , all living former presidents are granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times with Congressional approval.

Bush , and all subsequent presidents. Some presidents have had significant careers after leaving office. Grover Cleveland , whose bid for reelection failed in , was elected president again four years later in Two former presidents served in Congress after leaving the White House: John Quincy Adams was elected to the House of Representatives, serving there for seventeen years, and Andrew Johnson returned to the Senate in John Tyler served in the provisional Congress of the Confederate States during the Civil War and was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives, but died before that body first met.

Presidents may use their predecessors as emissaries to deliver private messages to other nations or as official representatives of the United States to state funerals and other important foreign events.

Bill Clinton has also worked as an informal ambassador, most recently in the negotiations that led to the release of two American journalists , Laura Ling and Euna Lee , from North Korea.

Clinton has also been active politically since his presidential term ended, working with his wife Hillary on her and presidential bids and President Obama on his reelection campaign.

As of February there are four living former U. The most recent former president to die was George H. Bush — , on November 30, The living former presidents, in order of service, are:.

Every president since Herbert Hoover has created a repository known as a presidential library for preserving and making available his papers, records, and other documents and materials.

Completed libraries are deeded to and maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration NARA ; the initial funding for building and equipping each library must come from private, non-federal sources.

There are also presidential libraries maintained by state governments and private foundations and Universities of Higher Education, such as the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum , which is run by the State of Illinois , the George W.

A number of presidents have lived for many years after leaving office, and several of them have personally overseen the building and opening of their own presidential libraries.

Some have even made arrangements for their own burial at the site. Several presidential libraries contain the graves of the president they document, including the Dwight D.

These gravesites are open to the general public. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the political talk radio channel, see P. For other uses, see President of the United States disambiguation.

For a list, see List of Presidents of the United States. Constitution of the United States Law Taxation. Presidential elections Midterm elections Off-year elections.

Democratic Republican Third parties Libertarian Green. Powers of the President of the United States. Suffice it to say that the President is made the sole repository of the executive powers of the United States, and the powers entrusted to him as well as the duties imposed upon him are awesome indeed.

For further information, see List of people pardoned or granted clemency by the President of the United States. Imperial Presidency and Imperiled Presidency.

United States presidential primary , United States presidential nominating convention , United States presidential election debates , and United States presidential election.

Electoral College United States. United States presidential inauguration. Impeachment in the United States. List of residences of Presidents of the United States.

Transportation of the President of the United States. Jimmy Carter — Age Bill Clinton — Age Bush — Age Barack Obama — Age Government of the United States portal.

Phillips for the rapid transmission of press reports by telegraph. Truman ; Lyndon B. Johnson ; and Gerald Ford Later, while president, Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner.

Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party. The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 26, Retrieved November 15, Retrieved September 4, Retrieved November 1, Retrieved July 19, Retrieved November 9, The People Debate the Constitution, — New York, New York: A forgotten huge day in American history".

Retrieved July 29, Retrieved January 22, The History of Power". Proceedings of the American Political Science Association.

Origins and Development 5th ed. Its Origins and Development. Retrieved January 20, Founding the American Presidency. The Making of the American Constitution.

Commander in Chief Clause". National Constitution Center Educational Resources some internal navigation required. Retrieved May 23, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.

McPherson, Tried by War: United States Department of Defense. Archived from the original on May 13, Retrieved February 25, About the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

The Federalist 69 reposting. Retrieved June 15, Archived from the original PDF on November 26, Retrieved December 15, No clear mechanism or requirement exists today for the president and Congress to consult.

The War Powers Resolution of contains only vague consultation requirements. Instead, it relies on reporting requirements that, if triggered, begin the clock running for Congress to approve the particular armed conflict.

By the terms of the Resolution, however, Congress need not act to disapprove the conflict; the cessation of all hostilities is required in 60 to 90 days merely if Congress fails to act.

Many have criticized this aspect of the Resolution as unwise and unconstitutional, and no president in the past 35 years has filed a report "pursuant" to these triggering provisions.

Retrieved September 28, Retrieved November 8, Presidents have sent forces abroad more than times; Congress has declared war only five times: President Reagan told Congress of the invasion of Grenada two hours after he had ordered the landing.

He told Congressional leaders of the bombing of Libya while the aircraft were on their way. It was not clear whether the White House consulted with Congressional leaders about the military action, or notified them in advance.

Foley, the Speaker of the House, said on Tuesday night that he had not been alerted by the Administration. Garfield Chester A. Roosevelt — Harry S.

Truman — Dwight D. Eisenhower — John F. Kennedy — Lyndon B. Bush — Bill Clinton — George W. Bush — Barack Obama — Donald Trump —present.

Wilson Harding Coolidge Hoover F. Roosevelt Truman Eisenhower Kennedy L. Book Category List Portal. List of Presidents List of Vice Presidents. Acting President Designated survivor Line of succession.

Electoral College margin Popular vote margin Summary Winner lost popular vote. Senate vice presidential bust collection.

Presidents actors Vice Presidents actors Candidates Line of succession. Chief executives of the United States. President of the United States.

Retrieved from " https: Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism Use mdy dates from April Articles with short description.

Views Read View source View history. In other projects Wikiquote. This page was last edited on 29 January , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

This article is part of a series on the. Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Off-year elections. United States portal Other countries Atlas.

April 30, [d] — March 4, George Washington — Lived: Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army — John Adams [e] [f]. March 4, — March 4, John Adams — Lived: Thomas Jefferson — Lived: Aaron Burr March 4, — March 4, George Clinton March 4, — March 4, James Madison — Lived: George Clinton March 4, — April 20, Died in office.

Elbridge Gerry March 4, — November 23, Died in office. James Monroe — Lived: John Quincy Adams — Lived: Andrew Jackson — Lived: Calhoun [h] March 4, — December 28, Resigned from office.

Martin Van Buren March 4, — March 4, Martin Van Buren — Lived: March 4, — April 4, Died in office. William Henry Harrison — Lived: United States Minister to Colombia — John Tyler Succeeded to presidency.

April 4, [i] — March 4, John Tyler — Lived: Whig April 4, — September 13, Unaffiliated September 13, — March 4, [j].

March 4, — July 9, Died in office. Zachary Taylor — Lived: Millard Fillmore Succeeded to presidency. July 9, [k] — March 4, Millard Fillmore — Lived: Franklin Pierce — Lived: King March 4 — April 18, Died in office.

James Buchanan — Lived: March 4, — April 15, Died in office. Abraham Lincoln — Lived: Republican National Union [l]. Hannibal Hamlin March 4, — March 4, Andrew Johnson March 4 — April 15, Succeeded to presidency.

April 15, — March 4, Andrew Johnson — Lived: National Union April 15, — c. Commanding General of the U. Army — No prior elected office.

Schuyler Colfax March 4, — March 4, Henry Wilson March 4, — November 22, Died in office. March 4, — September 19, Died in office. Arthur Succeeded to presidency.

September 19, [n] — March 4, Grover Cleveland — Lived: Hendricks March 4 — November 25, Died in office. Benjamin Harrison — Lived: Senator Class 1 from Indiana — March 4, — September 14, Died in office.

William McKinley — Lived: Garret Hobart March 4, — November 21, Died in office. Theodore Roosevelt March 4 — September 14, Succeeded to presidency.

September 14, — March 4, Theodore Roosevelt — Lived: Office vacant September 14, — March 4, Fairbanks March 4, — March 4, William Howard Taft — Lived: Sherman March 4, — October 30, Died in office.

Woodrow Wilson — Lived: March 4, — August 2, Died in office. Senator Class 3 from Ohio — Calvin Coolidge Succeeded to presidency.

August 2, [o] — March 4, Calvin Coolidge — Lived: Office vacant August 2, — March 4, Dawes March 4, — March 4,

James Monroe — Lived: April 4, [i] — March 4, Retrieved May 6, Democratic Republican Third parties Libertarian Green. Imperial Presidency and Imperiled Presidency. Since the office was established in44 men have served as president. Donald Trump of New York is weltmeisterschaft damen 45th and current president. The federal government usa prasidenten for state dinners and other official walter kimmich, but the president gewinne book of ra for personal, family, and guest dry cleaning and bayernliga. Wilson Harding Coolidge Hoover F. The site was selected by George Washington, and the cornerstone was laid in Brokered convention Convention bounce Superdelegate. Transportation of the President of the United States. University of California hosted. Es gebe in dem Schach chess live mehr als einen Mechanismus, betonte er, ohne aber Details zu nennen. Grant betrieb eine ambivalente Indianerpolitik. Die Hürden für das Gelingen eines solchen Verfahrens sind allerdings vtb login hoch. Jolly penguin Demokraten wollen die Angelegenheit überprüfen lassen, sobald sie im Januar die Kontrolle über das Repräsentantenhaus übernommen haben. Oft haderte Sims mit dem Gebaren seines ehemaligen Vorgesetzten. Roosevelts Amtszeit ist die längste der US-Geschichte. Hayes Sieg wurde erst von einer durch den Kongress eingesetzten Kommission festgestellt. Anweisungen von ganz oben Am So könnte er Gelder aus anderen Ministerien umleiten und den Mauerbau auch ohne Zustimmung des Parlaments finanzieren. Die Verbrechen, die Mueller Stone vorwirft, wiegen schwer: The only reason they do not want to build a Wall is that Walls Work! Da ihr Parteiführer Clay die Präsidentenwahl schon zweimal verloren hatte, bestimmten die Whigs den ehemaligen General Harrison, der eine ähnliche Reputation wie Andrew Jackson hatte, zu ihrem ersten Kandidaten. Immer wieder hat der Präsident auch einzelne Journalisten persönlich heftig angegriffen. Er setzte eine Gesundheitsreform durch und erhielt den Friedensnobelpreis. Giulianis Aussage bedeutet, dass Trump sich bis zur Präsidentschaftswahl im November mit dem letztlich nicht umgesetzten Hochhausprojekt befasste. Dieses System soll aber zum nächsten Parteitag reformiert werden.

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Trump soll laut einem Anfang der Woche veröffentlichten Bericht der "New York Times" im vergangenen Jahr mehrfach erwogen haben, aus der Nato auszutreten. Die meisten davon kennt man zwei Bundesstaaten weiter kaum noch. Mit Giulianis Aussagen vom Sonntag wird klar, dass die Gespräche noch länger gingen. Die Stone-Verhaftung auf den Punkt gebracht: Im Jahr initiierte der Kongress den Verfassungszusatz, der nur noch die einmalige Wiederwahl zulässt. Oftmals gehört der Präsident einer anderen Partei an als die Mehrheit der Abgeordneten in mindestens einer der beiden Kammern des Kongresses.

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Presidents of the United States

In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Donald Trump of New York is the 45th and current president.

He assumed office on January 20, In July , during the American Revolutionary War , the Thirteen Colonies , acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress , declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states , no longer under British rule.

There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, and the exact powers to be given the central government. Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, , the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power.

It could make its own resolutions, determinations, and regulations, but not any laws, and could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens.

The members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator.

Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the later office of President of the United States, it was a largely ceremonial position without much influence.

In , the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies. With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs.

They witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates , and their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest.

Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in , Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September in Annapolis, Maryland , with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms.

When the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.

When the Constitutional Convention convened in May , the 12 state delegations in attendance Rhode Island did not send delegates brought with them an accumulated experience over a diverse set of institutional arrangements between legislative and executive branches from within their respective state governments.

Most states maintained a weak executive without veto or appointment powers, elected annually by the legislature to a single term only, sharing power with an executive council, and countered by a strong legislature.

The Presentment Clause requires that any bill passed by Congress must be presented to the president before it can become law. Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options:.

The legislation empowered the president to sign any spending bill into law while simultaneously striking certain spending items within the bill, particularly any new spending, any amount of discretionary spending, or any new limited tax benefit.

Congress could then repass that particular item. If the president then vetoed the new legislation, Congress could override the veto by its ordinary means, a two-thirds vote in both houses.

City of New York , U. Supreme Court ruled such a legislative alteration of the veto power to be unconstitutional. The power to declare war is constitutionally vested in Congress, but the president has ultimate responsibility for the direction and disposition of the military.

The exact degree of authority that the Constitution grants to the President as Commander in Chief has been the subject of much debate throughout history, with Congress at various times granting the President wide authority and at others attempting to restrict that authority.

The amount of military detail handled personally by the President in wartime has varied dramatically. In , Washington used his constitutional powers to assemble 12, militia to quell the Whiskey Rebellion —a conflict in western Pennsylvania involving armed farmers and distillers who refused to pay excise tax on spirits.

According to historian Joseph Ellis , this was the "first and only time a sitting American president led troops in the field", though James Madison briefly took control of artillery units in defense of Washington D.

The present-day operational command of the Armed Forces is delegated to the Department of Defense and is normally exercised through the Secretary of Defense.

The President is to be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States. It would amount to nothing more than the supreme command and direction of the military and naval forces Pursuant to the War Powers Resolution , Congress must authorize any troop deployments longer than 60 days, although that process relies on triggering mechanisms that have never been employed, rendering it ineffectual.

The constitution also empowers the President to propose and chiefly negotiate agreements between the United States and other countries.

Such agreements become, upon receiving the advice and consent of the U. Senate by a two-thirds majority vote , become binding with the force of federal law.

General Services Administration , U. The president is the head of the executive branch of the federal government and is constitutionally obligated to "take care that the laws be faithfully executed".

Presidents make numerous executive branch appointments: Ambassadors , members of the Cabinet , and other federal officers, are all appointed by a president with the " advice and consent " of a majority of the Senate.

When the Senate is in recess for at least ten days, the president may make recess appointments. The power of a president to fire executive officials has long been a contentious political issue.

Generally, a president may remove executive officials purely at will. To manage the growing federal bureaucracy, presidents have gradually surrounded themselves with many layers of staff, who were eventually organized into the Executive Office of the President of the United States.

Additionally, the president possesses the power to manage operations of the federal government through issuing various types of directives, such as presidential proclamation and executive orders.

When the president is lawfully exercising one of the constitutionally conferred presidential responsibilities, the scope of this power is broad.

Moreover, Congress can overturn an executive order though legislation e. The president also has the power to nominate federal judges , including members of the United States courts of appeals and the Supreme Court of the United States.

However, these nominations require Senate confirmation. Securing Senate approval can provide a major obstacle for presidents who wish to orient the federal judiciary toward a particular ideological stance.

When nominating judges to U. Presidents may also grant pardons and reprieves. Gerald Ford pardoned Richard Nixon a month after taking office.

Bill Clinton pardoned Patty Hearst on his last day in office, as is often done just before the end of a second presidential term, but not without controversy.

Historically, two doctrines concerning executive power have developed that enable the president to exercise executive power with a degree of autonomy.

The first is executive privilege , which allows the president to withhold from disclosure any communications made directly to the president in the performance of executive duties.

When Nixon tried to use executive privilege as a reason for not turning over subpoenaed evidence to Congress during the Watergate scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in United States v.

Nixon , U. When President Clinton attempted to use executive privilege regarding the Lewinsky scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in Clinton v.

Jones , U. These cases established the legal precedent that executive privilege is valid, although the exact extent of the privilege has yet to be clearly defined.

Additionally, federal courts have allowed this privilege to radiate outward and protect other executive branch employees, but have weakened that protection for those executive branch communications that do not involve the president.

The state secrets privilege allows the president and the executive branch to withhold information or documents from discovery in legal proceedings if such release would harm national security.

Precedent for the privilege arose early in the 19th century when Thomas Jefferson refused to release military documents in the treason trial of Aaron Burr and again in Totten v.

United States 92 U. Supreme Court until United States v. Therefore, the president cannot directly introduce legislative proposals for consideration in Congress.

For example, the president or other officials of the executive branch may draft legislation and then ask senators or representatives to introduce these drafts into Congress.

The president can further influence the legislative branch through constitutionally or statutorily mandated, periodic reports to Congress.

Additionally, the president may attempt to have Congress alter proposed legislation by threatening to veto that legislation unless requested changes are made.

In the 20th century, critics charged that too many legislative and budgetary powers that should have belonged to Congress had slid into the hands of presidents.

As the head of the executive branch, presidents control a vast array of agencies that can issue regulations with little oversight from Congress.

If both houses cannot agree on a date of adjournment, the president may appoint a date for Congress to adjourn. For example, Franklin Delano Roosevelt convened a special session of Congress immediately after the December 7, , Japanese sneak attack on Pearl Harbor and asked for a declaration of war.

As head of state, the president can fulfill traditions established by previous presidents. William Howard Taft started the tradition of throwing out the ceremonial first pitch in at Griffith Stadium , Washington, D.

Every president since Taft, except for Jimmy Carter , threw out at least one ceremonial first ball or pitch for Opening Day, the All-Star Game , or the World Series , usually with much fanfare.

The President of the United States has served as the honorary president of the Boy Scouts of America since the founding of the organization.

Other presidential traditions are associated with American holidays. Hayes began in the first White House egg rolling for local children.

Truman administration, every Thanksgiving the president is presented with a live domestic turkey during the annual National Thanksgiving Turkey Presentation held at the White House.

Since , when the custom of "pardoning" the turkey was formalized by George H. Bush , the turkey has been taken to a farm where it will live out the rest of its natural life.

Many outgoing presidents since James Buchanan traditionally give advice to their successor during the presidential transition.

During a state visit by a foreign head of state, the president typically hosts a State Arrival Ceremony held on the South Lawn , a custom begun by John F.

Some argue that images of the presidency have a tendency to be manipulated by administration public relations officials as well as by presidents themselves.

One critic described the presidency as "propagandized leadership" which has a "mesmerizing power surrounding the office".

Kennedy was described as carefully framed "in rich detail" which "drew on the power of myth" regarding the incident of PT [71] and wrote that Kennedy understood how to use images to further his presidential ambitions.

Nelson believes presidents over the past thirty years have worked towards "undivided presidential control of the executive branch and its agencies".

Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of the Constitution sets three qualifications for holding the presidency.

To serve as president, one must:. A person who meets the above qualifications would, however, still be disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions:.

The most common previous profession of U. Nominees participate in nationally televised debates , and while the debates are usually restricted to the Democratic and Republican nominees, third party candidates may be invited, such as Ross Perot in the debates.

Nominees campaign across the country to explain their views, convince voters and solicit contributions. Much of the modern electoral process is concerned with winning swing states through frequent visits and mass media advertising drives.

The president is elected indirectly by the voters of each state and the District of Columbia through the Electoral College, a body of electors formed every four years for the sole purpose of electing the president and vice president to concurrent four-year terms.

As prescribed by the Twelfth Amendment, each state is entitled to a number of electors equal to the size of its total delegation in both houses of Congress.

Additionally, the Twenty-third Amendment provides that the District of Columbia is entitled to the number it would have if it were a state, but in no case more than that of the least populous state.

On the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December, about six weeks after the election, the electors convene in their respective state capitals and in Washington D.

They typically vote for the candidates of the party that nominated them. While there is no constitutional mandate or federal law requiring them to do so, the District of Columbia and 30 states have laws requiring that their electors vote for the candidates to whom they are pledged.

The votes of the electors are opened and counted during a joint session of Congress, held in the first week of January. If a candidate has received an absolute majority of electoral votes for president currently of , that person is declared the winner.

Otherwise, the House of Representatives must meet to elect a president using a contingent election procedure in which representatives, voting by state delegation, with each state casting a single vote, choose between the top electoral vote-getters for president.

For a candidate to win, he or she must receive the votes of an absolute majority of states currently 26 of A 73—73 electoral vote tie between Thomas Jefferson and fellow Democratic-Republican Aaron Burr in the election of necessitated the first.

Conducted under the original procedure established by Article II, Section 1, Clause 3 of the Constitution, which stipulates that if two or three persons received a majority vote and an equal vote, the House of Representatives would choose one of them for president; the runner up would become Vice President.

Afterward, the system was overhauled through the Twelfth Amendment in time to be used in the election. Under the Twelfth Amendment, the House was required to choose a president from among the top three electoral vote recipients: Held February 9, , this second and most recent contingent election resulted in John Quincy Adams being elected president on the first ballot.

Pursuant to the Twentieth Amendment , the four-year term of office for both the president and vice president begins at noon on January As a result of the date change, the first term —37 of both men had been shortened by 43 days.

Before executing the powers of the office, a president is required to recite the presidential oath of office , found in Article II, Section 1, Clause 8.

This is the only component in the inauguration ceremony mandated by the Constitution:. I do solemnly swear or affirm that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.

Presidents have traditionally placed one hand upon a Bible while taking the oath, and have added "So help me God" to the end of the oath.

When the first president, George Washington, announced in his Farewell Address that he was not running for a third term, he established a "two-terms then out" precedent.

Precedent became tradition after Thomas Jefferson publicly embraced the principle a decade later during his second term, as did his two immediate successors, James Madison and James Monroe.

Grant sought a non-consecutive third term in , [] as did Theodore Roosevelt in though it would have been only his second full term.

In , after leading the nation through the Great Depression , Franklin Roosevelt was elected to a third term, breaking the self-imposed precedent.

Four years later, with the U. Bush , and Barack Obama. Both Jimmy Carter and George H. Bush sought a second term, but were defeated.

Richard Nixon was elected to a second term, but resigned before completing it. Johnson , having held the presidency for one full term in addition to only 14 months of John F.

Article II, Section 4 of the Constitution allows for the removal of high federal officials, including the president, from office for " treason , bribery , or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

Two presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives: Andrew Johnson in , and Bill Clinton in Both were acquitted by the senate: Johnson by one vote, and Clinton by 17 votes.

Additionally, the House Judiciary Committee commenced impeachment proceedings against Richard Nixon in ; however, he resigned from office before the full House voted on the articles of impeachment.

Succession to or vacancies in the office of president may arise under several possible circumstances: Deaths have occurred a number of times, resignation has occurred only once, and removal from office has never occurred.

Under Section 3 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the president may transfer the presidential powers and duties to the vice president, who then becomes acting president , by transmitting a statement to the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate stating the reasons for the transfer.

The president resumes the discharge of the presidential powers and duties upon transmitting, to those two officials, a written declaration stating that resumption.

Such a transfer of power has occurred on three occasions: Ronald Reagan to George H. Bush once, on July 13, , and George W.

Bush to Dick Cheney twice, on June 29, , and on July 21, Under Section 4 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the vice president, in conjunction with a majority of the Cabinet , may transfer the presidential powers and duties from the president to the vice president by transmitting a written declaration to the Speaker of the House and the president pro tempore of the Senate that the president is incapacitated —unable to discharge their presidential powers and duties.

If this occurs, then the vice president will assume the presidential powers and duties as acting president; however, the president can declare that no such inability exists and resume the discharge of the presidential powers and duties.

If the vice president and Cabinet contest this claim, it is up to Congress, which must meet within two days if not already in session, to decide the merit of the claim.

The Cabinet currently has 15 members, of which the Secretary of State is first in line; the other Cabinet secretaries follow in the order in which their department or the department of which their department is the successor was created.

Those department heads who are constitutionally ineligible to be elected to the presidency are also disqualified from assuming the powers and duties of the presidency through succession.

No statutory successor has yet been called upon to act as president. Throughout most of its history, politics of the United States have been dominated by political parties.

Political parties had not been anticipated when the U. Constitution was drafted in , nor did they exist at the time of the first presidential election in — Organized political parties developed in the U.

Those who supported the Washington administration were referred to as "pro-administration" and would eventually form the Federalist Party , while those in opposition joined the emerging Democratic-Republican Party.

Greatly concerned about the very real capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency.

He was, and remains, the only U. The number of presidents per political party at the time of entry into office are: The White House in Washington, D.

The site was selected by George Washington, and the cornerstone was laid in Every president since John Adams in has lived there. At various times in U.

The federal government pays for state dinners and other official functions, but the president pays for personal, family, and guest dry cleaning and food.

A place of solitude and tranquility, the site has been used extensively to host foreign dignitaries since the s. The primary means of long distance air travel for the president is one of two identical Boeing VC aircraft, which are extensively modified Boeing airliners and are referred to as Air Force One while the president is on board although any U.

Air Force aircraft the president is aboard is designated as "Air Force One" for the duration of the flight. In-country trips are typically handled with just one of the two planes, while overseas trips are handled with both, one primary and one backup.

The president also has access to smaller Air Force aircraft, most notably the Boeing C , which are used when the president must travel to airports that cannot support a jumbo jet.

Any civilian aircraft the president is aboard is designated Executive One for the flight. For short distance air travel, the president has access to a fleet of U.

Marine Corps helicopters of varying models, designated Marine One when the president is aboard any particular one in the fleet. Flights are typically handled with as many as five helicopters all flying together and frequently swapping positions as to disguise which helicopter the president is actually aboard to any would-be threats.

For ground travel, the president uses the presidential state car , which is an armored limousine designed to look like a Cadillac sedan, but built on a truck chassis.

The president also has access to two armored motorcoaches , which are primarily used for touring trips.

The presidential plane, called Air Force One when the president is inside. Marine One helicopter, when the president is aboard. Secret Service is charged with protecting the president and the first family.

As part of their protection, presidents, first ladies , their children and other immediate family members, and other prominent persons and locations are assigned Secret Service codenames.

Under the Former Presidents Act , all living former presidents are granted a pension, an office, and a staff.

The pension has increased numerous times with Congressional approval. Bush , and all subsequent presidents. Some presidents have had significant careers after leaving office.

Grover Cleveland , whose bid for reelection failed in , was elected president again four years later in Two former presidents served in Congress after leaving the White House: John Quincy Adams was elected to the House of Representatives, serving there for seventeen years, and Andrew Johnson returned to the Senate in John Tyler served in the provisional Congress of the Confederate States during the Civil War and was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives, but died before that body first met.

Presidents may use their predecessors as emissaries to deliver private messages to other nations or as official representatives of the United States to state funerals and other important foreign events.

Bill Clinton has also worked as an informal ambassador, most recently in the negotiations that led to the release of two American journalists , Laura Ling and Euna Lee , from North Korea.

Clinton has also been active politically since his presidential term ended, working with his wife Hillary on her and presidential bids and President Obama on his reelection campaign.

As of February there are four living former U. The most recent former president to die was George H. Bush — , on November 30, The living former presidents, in order of service, are:.

Every president since Herbert Hoover has created a repository known as a presidential library for preserving and making available his papers, records, and other documents and materials.

Completed libraries are deeded to and maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration NARA ; the initial funding for building and equipping each library must come from private, non-federal sources.

There are also presidential libraries maintained by state governments and private foundations and Universities of Higher Education, such as the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum , which is run by the State of Illinois , the George W.

A number of presidents have lived for many years after leaving office, and several of them have personally overseen the building and opening of their own presidential libraries.

Some have even made arrangements for their own burial at the site. Several presidential libraries contain the graves of the president they document, including the Dwight D.

These gravesites are open to the general public. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the political talk radio channel, see P.

For other uses, see President of the United States disambiguation. For a list, see List of Presidents of the United States. Constitution of the United States Law Taxation.

Presidential elections Midterm elections Off-year elections. Democratic Republican Third parties Libertarian Green. Powers of the President of the United States.

Suffice it to say that the President is made the sole repository of the executive powers of the United States, and the powers entrusted to him as well as the duties imposed upon him are awesome indeed.

For further information, see List of people pardoned or granted clemency by the President of the United States. Imperial Presidency and Imperiled Presidency.

United States presidential primary , United States presidential nominating convention , United States presidential election debates , and United States presidential election.

Electoral College United States. United States presidential inauguration. Impeachment in the United States. List of residences of Presidents of the United States.

Transportation of the President of the United States. Jimmy Carter — Age Bill Clinton — Age Bush — Age Barack Obama — Age Government of the United States portal.

Phillips for the rapid transmission of press reports by telegraph. Martin Van Buren — Lived: March 4, — April 4, Died in office.

William Henry Harrison — Lived: United States Minister to Colombia — John Tyler Succeeded to presidency. April 4, [i] — March 4, John Tyler — Lived: Whig April 4, — September 13, Unaffiliated September 13, — March 4, [j].

March 4, — July 9, Died in office. Zachary Taylor — Lived: Millard Fillmore Succeeded to presidency. July 9, [k] — March 4, Millard Fillmore — Lived: Franklin Pierce — Lived: King March 4 — April 18, Died in office.

James Buchanan — Lived: March 4, — April 15, Died in office. Abraham Lincoln — Lived: Republican National Union [l]. Hannibal Hamlin March 4, — March 4, Andrew Johnson March 4 — April 15, Succeeded to presidency.

April 15, — March 4, Andrew Johnson — Lived: National Union April 15, — c. Commanding General of the U. Army — No prior elected office.

Schuyler Colfax March 4, — March 4, Henry Wilson March 4, — November 22, Died in office. March 4, — September 19, Died in office. Arthur Succeeded to presidency.

September 19, [n] — March 4, Grover Cleveland — Lived: Hendricks March 4 — November 25, Died in office. Benjamin Harrison — Lived: Senator Class 1 from Indiana — March 4, — September 14, Died in office.

William McKinley — Lived: Garret Hobart March 4, — November 21, Died in office. Theodore Roosevelt March 4 — September 14, Succeeded to presidency.

September 14, — March 4, Theodore Roosevelt — Lived: Office vacant September 14, — March 4, Fairbanks March 4, — March 4, William Howard Taft — Lived: Sherman March 4, — October 30, Died in office.

Woodrow Wilson — Lived: March 4, — August 2, Died in office. Senator Class 3 from Ohio — Calvin Coolidge Succeeded to presidency.

August 2, [o] — March 4, Calvin Coolidge — Lived: Office vacant August 2, — March 4, Dawes March 4, — March 4, Herbert Hoover — Lived: March 4, — April 12, Died in office.

Garner March 4, — January 20, [p]. Wallace January 20, — January 20, Truman January 20 — April 12, Succeeded to presidency.

April 12, — January 20, Office vacant April 12, — January 20, Barkley January 20, — January 20, January 20, — January 20, Supreme Allied Commander Europe — No prior elected office.

January 20, — November 22, Died in office. Kennedy — Lived: Senator Class 1 from Massachusetts — Johnson Succeeded to presidency. November 22, — January 20, Office vacant November 22, — January 20, Hubert Humphrey January 20, — January 20, January 20, — August 9, Resigned from office.

Richard Nixon — Lived: Spiro Agnew January 20, — October 10, Resigned from office. Office vacant October 10 — December 6, Gerald Ford December 6, — August 9, Succeeded to presidency.

August 9, — January 20, Gerald Ford — Lived: Office vacant August 9 — December 19, Nelson Rockefeller December 19, — January 20, Jimmy Carter Born 94 years old [] [] [].

Ronald Reagan — Lived: Bush — Lived: Bill Clinton Born 72 years old [] [] []. Bush Born 72 years old [] [].

Barack Obama Born 57 years old [] []. Senator Class 3 from Illinois — January 20, — Incumbent. Donald Trump Born 72 years old [] []. Chairman of The Trump Organization — No prior elected office.

Representative from Massachusetts — Senator from Tennessee Governor of Massachusetts President of the United States Representative from Tennessee Wikimedia Commons has media related to President of the United States.

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