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Imperium is Latin for the authority to command, one of a various types of authority delineated in Roman political thought.
Beginning with Augustus, Imperator appeared in the title of all Roman monarchs through the extinction of the Empire in Other honorifics used by the Roman Emperors have also come to be synonyms for Emperor:.
After the turbulent Year of the four emperors in 69, the Flavian Dynasty reigned for three decades. The succeeding Nervan-Antonian Dynasty , ruling for most of the 2nd century, stabilised the Empire.
This epoch became known as the era of the Five Good Emperors , and was followed by the short-lived Severan Dynasty.
During the Crisis of the 3rd century , Barracks Emperors succeeded one another at short intervals. Three short lived secessionist attempts had their own emperors: At one point, there were as many as five sharers of the imperium see: In AD Constantine I defeated his rivals and restored single emperor rule, but following his death the empire was divided among his sons.
For a time the concept was of one empire ruled by multiple emperors with varying territory under their control, however following the death of Theodosius I the rule was divided between his two sons and increasingly became separate entities.
Historians generally refer to the continuing Roman Empire in the east as the Byzantine Empire after Byzantium , the original name of the town that Constantine I would elevate to the Imperial capital as New Rome in AD The city is more commonly called Constantinople and is today named Istanbul.
Although the empire was again subdivided and a co-emperor sent to Italy at the end of the fourth century, the office became unitary again only 95 years later at the request of the Roman Senate and following the death of Julius Nepos , last Western Emperor.
This change was a recognition of the reality that little remained of Imperial authority in the areas that had been the Western Empire, with even Rome and Italy itself now ruled by the essentially autonomous Odoacer.
These Later Roman "Byzantine" Emperors completed the transition from the idea of the Emperor as a semi-republican official to the Emperor as an absolute monarch.
Of particular note was the translation of the Latin Imperator into the Greek Basileus , after Emperor Heraclius changed the official language of the empire from Latin to Greek in AD Basileus, a title which had long been used for Alexander the Great was already in common usage as the Greek word for the Roman emperor, but its definition and sense was "King" in Greek, essentially equivalent with the Latin Rex.
Byzantine period emperors also used the Greek word "autokrator", meaning "one who rules himself", or "monarch", which was traditionally used by Greek writers to translate the Latin dictator.
Essentially, the Greek language did not incorporate the nuances of the Ancient Roman concepts that distinguished imperium from other forms of political power.
One important distinction between the post Constantine I reigned AD — emperors and their pagan predecessors was cesaropapism , the assertion that the Emperor or other head of state is also the head of the Church.
Although this principle was held by all emperors after Constantine, it met with increasing resistance and ultimately rejection by bishops in the west after the effective end of Imperial power there.
This concept became a key element of the meaning of "emperor" in the Byzantine and Orthodox east, but went out of favor in the west with the rise of Roman Catholicism.
The Byzantine empire also produced three women who effectively governed the state: Following the tragedy of the horrific sacking of the city, the conquerors declared a new "Empire of Romania", known to historians as the Latin Empire of Constantinople , installing Baldwin IX , Count of Flanders , as Emperor.
However, Byzantine resistance to the new empire meant that it was in constant struggle to establish itself. The Principality of Achaea , a vassal state the empire had created in Morea Greece intermittently continued to recognize the authority of the crusader emperors for another half century.
Pretenders to the title continued among the European nobility until circa With Constantinople occupied, claimants to the imperial succession styled themselves as emperor in the chief centers of resistance: In , the Epirus recognized the Nicaean Emperors, who then recaptured Constantinople in The Trebizond emperor formally submitted in Constantinople in ,  but frequently flouted convention by styling themselves emperor back in Trebizond thereafter.
Ottoman rulers held several titles denoting their Imperial status. After the Ottoman capture of Constantinople in , the Ottoman sultans began to style themselves Kaysar-i Rum Emperor of the Romans as they asserted themselves to be the heirs to the Roman empire by right of conquest.
The title was of such importance to them that it led them to eliminate the various Byzantine successor states — and therefore rival claimants — over the next eight years.
Though the term "emperor" was rarely used by Westerners of the Ottoman sultan, it was generally accepted by Westerners that he had imperial status.
The prince-electors elected one of their peers as King of the Romans and King of Italy before being crowned by the Pope. The Emperor could also pursue the election of his heir usually a son as King, who would then succeed him after his death.
Although technically already ruling, after the election he would be crowned as emperor by the Pope. The last emperor to be crowned by the pope was Charles V ; all emperors after him were technically emperors-elect , but were universally referred to as Emperor.
After which, the victorious Napoleon proceeded to dismantle the old Reich by severing a good portion from the empire and turning it into a separate Confederation of the Rhine.
The title lasted just a little over one century until , but it was never clear what territory constituted the " Empire of Austria ".
Kaisertum might literally be translated as "emperordom" on analogy with "kingdom" or "emperor-ship"; the term denotes specifically "the territory ruled by an emperor", and is thus somewhat more general than Reich , which in carried connotations of universal rule.
Austria proper as opposed to the complex of Habsburg lands as a whole had been an Archduchy since the 15th century, and most of the other territories of the Empire had their own institutions and territorial history, although there were some attempts at centralization, especially during the reign of Marie Therese and her son Joseph II and then finalized in the early 19th century.
When Hungary was given self-government in , the non-Hungarian portions were called the Empire of Austria and were officially known as the "Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council Reichsrat ".
The title of Emperor of Austria and the associated Empire were both abolished at the end of the First World War in , when German Austria became a republic and the other kingdoms and lands represented in the Imperial Council established their independence or adhesion to other states.
In its final simplified form, the title read "Emperor and Autocrat of all Bulgarians and Romans" Tsar i samodarzhets na vsichki balgari i gartsi in the modern vernacular.
The Roman component in the Bulgarian imperial title indicated both rulership over Greek speakers and the derivation of the imperial tradition from the Romans, however this component was never recognised by the Byzantine court.
The decade — was spent in destructive warfare between Byzantium and Bulgaria over this and other matters of conflict. Byzantine recognition of the imperial dignity of the Bulgarian monarch and the patriarchal dignity of the Bulgarian patriarch was again confirmed at the conclusion of permanent peace and a Bulgarian-Byzantine dynastic marriage in In the meantime, the Bulgarian imperial title may have been also confirmed by the pope.
The Bulgarian imperial title "tsar" was adopted by all Bulgarian monarchs up to the fall of Bulgaria under Ottoman rule. After Bulgaria obtained full independence from the Ottoman Empire in , its monarch, who was previously styled Knyaz , [prince], took the traditional title of Tsar [king] and was recognized internationally as such.
The Ottomans insisted on this elevated style while refusing to recognize the Holy Roman Emperors or the Russian tsars because of their rival claims of the Roman crown.
The French kings also used it for Morocco and Persia Napoleon relinquished the title of Emperor of the French on 6 April and again on 11 April Napoleon I was allowed, by the treaty of Fontainebleau with 27 April , to enjoy, for life, the imperial title.
The islands were not restyled an empire. After his final defeat, Napoleon was treated as a general by the British authorities during his second exile to Atlantic Isle of St.
His title was a matter of dispute with the governor of St Helena, who insisted on addressing him as "General Bonaparte", despite the "historical reality that he had been an emperor" and therefore retained the title.
It was associated with the Leonese monarchy perhaps as far back as Alfonso the Great r. The last two kings of its Astur-Leonese dynasty were called emperors in a contemporary source.
His son, Ferdinand I of Castile also took the title in It then passed to his son-in-law, Alfonso I of Aragon in The title was not exactly hereditary but self-proclaimed by those who had, wholly or partially, united the Christian northern part of the Iberian Peninsula , often at the expense of killing rival siblings.
The popes and Holy Roman emperors protested at the usage of the imperial title as a usurpation of leadership in western Christendom.
After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the legitimate heir to the throne, Andreas Palaiologos , willed away his claim to Ferdinand and Isabella in John VI held the imperial title for a few months only, from the ratification of the Treaty in November until his death in March In the late 3rd century, by the end of the epoch of the barracks emperors in Rome, there were two Britannic Emperors , reigning for about a decade.
After the end of Roman rule in Britain , the Imperator Cunedda forged the Kingdom of Gwynedd in northern Wales, but all his successors were titled kings and princes.
There was no consistent title for the king of England before , and monarchs chose to style themselves as they pleased. Imperial titles were used inconsistently, beginning with Athelstan in and ended with the Norman conquest of England.
Empress Matilda — is the only English monarch commonly referred to as "emperor" or "empress", but she acquired her title through her marriage to Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor.
This was in the context of the divorce of Catherine of Aragon and the English Reformation , to emphasize that England had never accepted the quasi-imperial claims of the papacy.
Hence England and, by extension its modern successor state, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland , is according to English law an Empire ruled by a King endowed with the imperial dignity.
However, this has not led to the creation of the title of Emperor in England, nor in Great Britain , nor in the United Kingdom.
The only period when British monarchs held the title of Emperor in a dynastic succession started when the title Empress of India was created for Queen Victoria.
The Indian Independence Act provided for the abolition of the use of the title " Emperor of India " by the British monarch , but this was not executed by King George VI until a royal proclamation on 22 June Despite this, George VI continued as king of India until and as king of Pakistan until his death in Bismarck wanted to unify the rival German states to achieve his aim of a conservative, Prussian-dominated Germany.
Three wars led to military successes and helped to convince German people to do this: During the Siege of Paris in , the North German Confederation , supported by its allies from southern Germany , formed the German Empire with the proclamation of the Prussian king Wilhelm I as German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles , to the humiliation of the French, who ceased to resist only days later.
After his death he was succeeded by his son Frederick III who was only emperor for 99 days. In the same year his son Wilhelm II became the third emperor within a year.
He was the last German emperor. The use of the word Reich was abandoned after the Second World War. This idea was represented more emphatically in the composition the monk Filofej addressed to their son Vasili III.
The word "Tsar" derives from Latin Caesar, but this title was used in Russia as equivalent to "King"; the error occurred when medieval Russian clerics referred to the biblical Jewish kings with the same title that was used to designate Roman and Byzantine rulers — "Caesar".
The title used was Latin " Imperator ", which is a westernizing form equivalent to the traditional Slavic title " Tsar ".
Imperial Russia produced four reigning Empresses, all in the eighteenth century. His imperial title was recognized by Bulgaria and various other neighbors and trading partners but not by the Byzantine Empire.
The "Greek" component in the Serbian imperial title indicates both rulership over Greeks and the derivation of the imperial tradition from the Romans.
The Aztec and Inca traditions are unrelated to one another. Both were conquered under the reign of King Charles I of Spain who was simultaneously emperor-elect of the Holy Roman Empire during the fall of the Aztecs and fully emperor during the fall of the Incas.
Incidentally by being king of Spain, he was also Roman Byzantine emperor in pretence through Andreas Palaiologos. The translations of their titles were provided by the Spanish.
It was an elected monarchy chosen by the elite. Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro , conquered the Inca for Spain, killed Emperor Atahualpa , and installed puppets as well.
Atahualpa may actually be considered a usurper as he had achieved power by killing his half-brother and he did not perform the required coronation with the imperial crown mascaipacha by the Huillaq Uma high priest.
When Napoleon I ordered the invasion of Portugal in because it refused to join the Continental System , the Portuguese Braganzas moved their capital to Rio de Janeiro to avoid the fate of the Spanish Bourbons Napoleon I arrested them and made his brother Joseph king.
When the French general Jean-Andoche Junot arrived in Lisbon , the Portuguese fleet had already left with all the local elite. In , under a British naval escort, the fleet arrived in Brazil.
After the fall of Napoleon I and the Liberal revolution in Portugal, the Portuguese royal family returned to Europe He was assassinated the next year.
Haiti again became an empire from to under Faustin Soulouque. In Mexico, the First Mexican Empire was the first of two empires created.
After the declaration of independence on September 15, , it was the intention of the Mexican parliament to establish a commonwealth whereby the King of Spain, Ferdinand VII , would also be Emperor of Mexico , but in which both countries were to be governed by separate laws and with their own legislative offices.
Should the king refuse the position, the law provided for a member of the House of Bourbon to accede to the Mexican throne.
Ferdinand VII, however, did not recognize the independence and said that Spain would not allow any other European prince to take the throne of Mexico.
Maximilian and Carlota made Chapultepec Castle their home, which has been the only palace in North America to house sovereigns.
This empire led to French influence in the Mexican culture and also immigration from France , Belgium, and Switzerland to Mexico.
In Persia , from the time of Darius the Great , Persian rulers used the title " King of Kings " Shahanshah in Persian since they had dominion over peoples from the borders of India to the borders of Greece and Egypt.
Alexander probably crowned himself shahanshah after conquering Persia [ citation needed ] , bringing the phrase basileus ton basileon to Greek.
It is also known that Tigranes the Great , king of Armenia, was named as the king of kings when he made his empire after defeating the Parthians.
Shahanshah is usually translated as king of kings or simply king for ancient rulers of the Achaemenid , Arsacid , and Sassanid dynasties, and often shortened to shah for rulers since the Safavid dynasty in the 16th century.
Iranian rulers were typically regarded in the West as emperors. This word has been used as an epithet of various Vedic deities, like Varuna, and has been attested in the Rig-Veda , possibly the oldest compiled book among the Indo-Europeans.
Chakravarti refers to the king of kings. Learn more More Like This. The Kingdom of the Winds — The Book of the Three Hans — The Great Jang-Geum — A series based on a real person in Korean history, Suh, Jang-geum.
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