Egyptian book of the dead spell 6

egyptian book of the dead spell 6

Jul 26, BOOK OF THE DEAD BECOMING GOD IN ANCIENT EGYPT edited by FOY SCALF with new object photography by, BD spell 6), heart scarabs. 1. Febr. egyptian book of the dead spell 6. Das ägyptische Totenbuch (Originaltitel Heraustreten in das Tageslicht oder Buch vom. Band 6: Barbara. Juni Egyptian book of the dead spell the of egyptian spell dead book - . You are viewing lesson Lesson 11 in chapter 6 of the course.

Egyptian Book Of The Dead Spell 6 Video

The Book of the Dead - Cardboard Box DIY -- The Mummy Prop Tutorial Kundenrezensionen 5,0 von 5 Sternen. Truths, while the heart is weighed against the feather Instead, for almost the entire duration of the of Maat. It means that he for whom this is done will voyage and be with Ra every day in every place he desires to travel, and it means that radio lodz enemies of Ra will be driven off in very deed. The number was originally given to a Vignette of the rising sun which was intended as an illustration to accompany a Sun-Hymn. From the 21st Dynasty onward, more copies of the Book of the Dead are found in hieratic script. Greek and Latin Texts. There are fields, crops, oxen, people and waterways. The last use of the Book of the Dead was in the 1st century BCE, though some artistic motifs drawn from it were still in use in Roman times. Add to Add to Add to. Book of the Dead Egyptian.

Spell for causing a shabti to do work for a man in the realm of the dead: Words spoken by Ani: I have come that I may see my father Osiris and that I may cut out the heart of Seth who has harmed my father Osiris.

I have opened up every path which is in the sky and on earth, for I am the well-beloved son of my father Osiris. I am noble, I am a spirit [ akh ], I am equipped; O all you gods and all you spirits [ akhu ], prepare a path for me.

What does that mean? It means that I was cleansed on the day of my birth in the two great and noble marshes which are in Heracleopolis on the day when the common folk make offerings to the Great God who is therein.

They are the Lake of Natron and the Lake of Maat. As for that Great God who is therein, he is Ra himself. My mouth is opened, by mouth is split open by Shu with that iron harpoon of his with which he split open the mouths of the gods.

I have put my name in the Upper Egyptian shrine, I [have] made my name to be remembered in the Lower Egyptian shrine, on this night of counting the years and of numbering the months This spell was found in Hermopolis, under the feet of this god.

It was written on a block of mineral of Upper Egypt in the writings of the god himself, and was discovered in the time of [King] Menkaure.

O my heart of my mother! O my heart of my different forms! Do not stand up as a witness against me, do not be opposed to me in the tribunal, do not be hostile to me in the presence of the Keeper of the Balance, for you are my ka which was in my body, the protector who made my members hale.

For this reason burials included a number of statuettes named shabti , or later ushebti. The path to the afterlife as laid out in the Book of the Dead was a difficult one.

The deceased was required to pass a series of gates, caverns and mounds guarded by supernatural creatures. Their names—for instance, "He who lives on snakes" or "He who dances in blood"—are equally grotesque.

These creatures had to be pacified by reciting the appropriate spells included in the Book of the Dead ; once pacified they posed no further threat, and could even extend their protection to the dead person.

If all the obstacles of the Duat could be negotiated, the deceased would be judged in the "Weighing of the Heart" ritual, depicted in Spell The deceased was led by the god Anubis into the presence of Osiris.

There, the dead person swore that he had not committed any sin from a list of 42 sins , [44] reciting a text known as the "Negative Confession".

Maat was often represented by an ostrich feather, the hieroglyphic sign for her name. If the scales balanced, this meant the deceased had led a good life.

Anubis would take them to Osiris and they would find their place in the afterlife, becoming maa-kheru , meaning "vindicated" or "true of voice".

This scene is remarkable not only for its vividness but as one of the few parts of the Book of the Dead with any explicit moral content. The judgment of the dead and the Negative Confession were a representation of the conventional moral code which governed Egyptian society.

For every "I have not John Taylor points out the wording of Spells 30B and suggests a pragmatic approach to morality; by preventing the heart from contradicting him with any inconvenient truths, it seems that the deceased could enter the afterlife even if their life had not been entirely pure.

A Book of the Dead papyrus was produced to order by scribes. They were commissioned by people in preparation for their own funeral, or by the relatives of someone recently deceased.

They were expensive items; one source gives the price of a Book of the Dead scroll as one deben of silver, [51] perhaps half the annual pay of a labourer.

In one case, a Book of the Dead was written on second-hand papyrus. Most owners of the Book of the Dead were evidently part of the social elite; they were initially reserved for the royal family, but later papyri are found in the tombs of scribes, priests and officials.

Towards the beginning of the history of the Book of the Dead , there are roughly 10 copies belonging to men for every one for a woman.

The dimensions of a Book of the Dead could vary widely; the longest is 40m long while some are as short as 1m. The scribes working on Book of the Dead papyri took more care over their work than those working on more mundane texts; care was taken to frame the text within margins, and to avoid writing on the joints between sheets.

Books were often prefabricated in funerary workshops, with spaces being left for the name of the deceased to be written in later.

The text of a New Kingdom Book of the Dead was typically written in cursive hieroglyphs , most often from left to right, but also sometimes from right to left.

The hieroglyphs were in columns, which were separated by black lines — a similar arrangement to that used when hieroglyphs were carved on tomb walls or monuments.

Illustrations were put in frames above, below, or between the columns of text. The largest illustrations took up a full page of papyrus.

From the 21st Dynasty onward, more copies of the Book of the Dead are found in hieratic script. The calligraphy is similar to that of other hieratic manuscripts of the New Kingdom; the text is written in horizontal lines across wide columns often the column size corresponds to the size of the papyrus sheets of which a scroll is made up.

Occasionally a hieratic Book of the Dead contains captions in hieroglyphic. The text of a Book of the Dead was written in both black and red ink, regardless of whether it was in hieroglyphic or hieratic script.

Most of the text was in black, with red ink used for the titles of spells, opening and closing sections of spells, the instructions to perform spells correctly in rituals, and also for the names of dangerous creatures such as the demon Apep.

The style and nature of the vignettes used to illustrate a Book of the Dead varies widely. Some contain lavish colour illustrations, even making use of gold leaf.

Others contain only line drawings, or one simple illustration at the opening. Book of the Dead papyri were often the work of several different scribes and artists whose work was literally pasted together.

The existence of the Book of the Dead was known as early as the Middle Ages, well before its contents could be understood. In Karl Richard Lepsius published a translation of a manuscript dated to the Ptolemaic era and coined the name " Book of The Dead" das Todtenbuch.

He also introduced the spell numbering system which is still in use, identifying different spells. The work of E. Allen and Raymond O.

XXI Identification with Osiris and other gods. The identification with Osiris, which is already mentioned in the earhest parts of the book, is taken for granted later on, since the name of the deceased is always preceded by "Osiris.

This Osirian nature gives the deceased the power to triumph over the numerous enemies whom he has to face. To these three benefits which the book confers on the deceased we should add a fourth: There is evidently in some of the prayers a remembrance of a time when the deceased were dismembered at their burial ; and this way of treating the corpse is for the deceased an object of horror.

The frequent mention of reconstituting the body, the promises that no part of it shall be taken away, all this shows of what supreme importance it was for him that his body should remain intact.

Without a well preserved body there could be no life in the other world ; its destruction implies the destruction of the whole individual.

This belief is the origin of mummification, for decay is the strongest agent of dismemberment and the certain ruin of the body.

These are the outlines of the principal tenets of the Book of the Dead. If we inquire where they originated, there is no doubt that the bulk of the book came from Heliopolis.

It is the doctrine of that ancient city and of its priests. Some of the chapters may be attributed to the priests at Abydos, as M. Maspero suggests ; but it seems certain that, except for a small part, the birthplace of the Book of the Dead is the city of Ra Tmu, the place connected with the oldest religious traditions of the country, and which may rightly be called the religious capital of Egypt.

Said upon the Day of Burial of N, the Victorious, 3 who entereth after coming forth. I am one of those gods, the 6 Powers who effect the triumph of Osiris over his adversaries on the day of the Weighing of the Words: I am thy kinsman, Osiris.

I am one of those gods to whom Nut hath given birth, who slay the adversaries of Osiris and imprison the 7 Sebau, on his behalf: I am thy kinsman, Horus.

I have fought for thee, and have prevailed for thy name. I am Thoth who effect the triumph of Osiris over his adversaries on that day of Weighing of the Words in the 8 House of the Prince, which is in Heliopolis.

I am with the mourners and weepers who wail over Osiris in 10 Rechit, and who effect the triumph of Osiris over his adver- saries.

Ra issued the mandate to Thoth, that he should effect the triumph of Osiris against his adversaries, and the mandate is what Thoth hath executed.

I am with Horus on the day of covering 11 Teshtesh and of opening the fountains for the refreshment of 12 the god whose heart is motionless, and closing the entrance to the hidden things in 13 Restau.

I am with Horus, as the avenger of that left arm of Osiris which is in 14 Sechem. I enter in, and I come forth from the 15 Tank of Flame on the day when the adversaries are annihilated at Sechem.

I am the Priest 17 in Tattu and exalt him who is on the Height. I am he who seeth what is shut up at Restau.

I am the Sem-priest in all that pertaineth to his office. I am the Arch-Craftsman, on the day in which the Ship of Sokaru is laid upon its stocks.

O ye who give bread and beer to beneficent souls in the house of Osiris, do you give bread and beer at the two periods to the soul of iVwho is with you.

O ye who unclose the ways and open the roads to beneficent souls in the house of Osiris, unclose then the ways and open the roads to the soul of N who is with you, let him enter boldly and come forth in peace at the house of Osiris, without hindrance and without repulse.

Let him enter at his pleasure and go forth at his will, triumphantly with you ; and let that be executed which he shall order in the house of Osiris.

No lightness of his in the scale has been found and the Balance is 23 relieved of his case. Papyrus in the British Museum. The text taken for the basis of the translation of Chapter i is that of the papyrus of Huneferu ; Ag of M.

The title here translated is that usual in all the papyri representing the third period of the text. It occurs however in the papyrus Ag of Huneferu, who lived in the days of Seti I, at the beginning of the XlXth dynasty.

It is also found in the papyrus of Ani. Chapter bears the same title in the older manuscripts, which sometimes begin with it. These are two very difficult words, and very different meanings have been assigned to them.

But when the entire evidence is examined the result is plain enough. The papyrus of Nebseni has preserved two chapters, to which M. Naville has assigned the numbers and Chapter of raising 2ip the body, of giving it eyes a fid the possession of ears, and establishing the head, made firtn on its props.

There are numerous pictures in the tombs representing priests performing this office. The translation "juste de voix," limits the conception of viadt to one of its secondary acceptations.

Nothing is more common than this particle followed only by a proper name, e. Instead of looking out for moods and tenses and paradigms, Egyptologists ought to wake to the consciousness that the Egyptians never rose to the conception of what we mean by a verb.

The sfbmi are the enemies of the Sjtn, either as Ra or Osiris. I believe that under this mythological name the dark clouds are personified.

It must be remembered however that many of the geographical localities named in the Book of the Dead have their counterparts in the Egyptian heaven.

The mourners and weepers alluded to are chiefly Isis and Nephthys. Teshtesh is one of the names of Osiris; perhaps, as might be inferred from a text at Dendera, of his molten image.

The god "whose heart is motionless" is Osiris. Its situation is specified in Chapter 17, line Letopolis, where the arm of Osiris had been de- posited, when the other limbs of the god were dispersed throughout the cities of Egypt.

The Tank of Flame, as may be inferred from the vignettes of the papyri, is where the sun rises or sets. Feast of the seventh day of the month.

It must never be forgotten when reading these texts that the Egyptian priests had divine titles, and that their ceremonies were dramatic, and symbolical of the acts performed by the gods.

The text here is hopelessly corrupt. The translation given follows Ag. One might translate the Turin text, " I lustrate with water in Tattu and with oil in Abydos, exalting him who is in the heights in excelsls ," for this text com- bines different readings.

But n as it is written, may have another meaning. Max Miiller in behalf of this reading of ihe priestly name is quite convincing. One of the designations of Osiris.

Some have cleverly inferred that the Egyptians thought that the soul was of a birdlike form, and others have not hesitated to consider ba as expressive of the cry of the ram.

The truth is that in spite of appearances the word ba is not onomatopoeic here. The latter, who held perhaps the highest sacerdotal office in Egypt, as high priest of Ptah at Memphis, is repeatedly found combining with his own special office that of the seftt.

Abundant details of the ceremony will be found in the plates of M. The king Seti I is represented as a Sem priest presiding at the festival.

The deceased asks, among other things, to appear " before thee, O Lord of the gods, to attain the region of Madt, may I rise up a living god, let me shine like the divine host which is in heaven, let me be as one of you.

Let my steps be lifted up in Cher-abaut. Let the Cher-heb [the priestly ministrant] make invocation over my coffin. Let me hear the prayers of propitiation.

Let the divine ship Neshemet advance for me, let not my soul and its possessor suffer repulse. Let me be a follower of Horus in Re-stau, and of Osiris in Tattu.

And there shall be given to him bread and beer and flesh meat upon the table of Ra: This chapter is found in so very few copies that the text cannot as yet be restored.

The two texts published by M. Naville differ widely from each other. It was known however down to the Roman period, though not inserted into copies of the Book of the Dead.

It is called Chapter of ititrodvcing the Mvmmy into the Tuat on the day of burial. The th chapter bears a similar title.

The word here translated mummy is probably not to be understood of the visible mummy, but of tiie living personality which it enclosed. I I who live upon the flesh of men and swallow their blood.

The chapter finished with prayers in which the deceased identifies himself with Horus, who has taken possession of the throne which his father has given him ; he has taken possession of heaven, and inherited the earth, and neither heaven nor earth shall be taken from him, for he is Ra, the eldest of the gods.

His mother suckles him and offers him her breast, which is on the horizon at Dawn. Chapter for Coining forth by day and Living after death.

Oh thou Only One, i who shinest from the Moon, let me come forth amid that train 2 of thine, at large, 3 and let me be revealed 4 as one of those in glory.

This chapter occurs in only two of the ancient MSS. Another chapter like it. Oh Tmu, who proceedest from Ur-henhenu, i who art resplen- dent as the Lion-faced, 2 and who strewest thy words to those who are before thee ; Here cometh the faithful N, from the band of those who do the bidding of thy words.

As Ra is bom from Yesterday, so he too is born from Yesterday, and as every god exulteth in life, so shall N exult even as they exult in life.

The two notions, however, are found in combination in the Pyramid texts of Unas 1. See note 8 on Chapter i. It is I who travel on the Stream i which divideth the divine Pair, 2 I am come, let there be given to me the lands of Osiris.

This fourth chapter has not as yet been found in any of the papyri of the best period. See Chapter 61, and F.

He saith, I am he who raiseth the hand which is motionless, and I come forth at the hour. This chapter is found in several of the best MSS. The Turin text differs greatly from that of the older copies, and the transposition of words clearly shows how little the transcribers under- stood what they were writing.

I follow chiefly the text of Aa, the papyrus of Nebseni. These words only occur in the later copies. Duvaucelle, about the Siamang apes in the neighbourhood of Bencoolen in Sumatra.

This is the morning call of the mountain Malays, but to the inhabitants of the town, who are unaccustomed to it, it is a most insupportable annoyance.

They it is who light him on both sides, and go forth in advance of him And when he arises they turn into six cynocephali.

But if the scribe had consulted the oldest texts accessible in his day, he would probably have seen another way out. It is the technical term used in the Tablet of Canopus for the inducting, by the king, of priests into their offices.

And it is easy to see how the later text, which is already found in Ax, has been corrupted out of the older. Chapter whereby the fimereal Statuettes may be made to do ivork for a person i?

O Statuette i there! Should I be called and appointed to do any of the labours that are done in the Netherworld by a person according to his abilities, lo!

Here am I, whithersoever thou callest me. This chapter is inscribed on the funereal statuettes, of which enormous quantities are found ; sometimes by hundreds in the neighbourhood of a single mummy.

But there is no reason for supposing that the earlier form had the same meaning. Chapter of passing through the chine of Apepi which is void.

Oh, One of Wax, i who takest captive and seizest with violence, and livest upon those who are motionless! Let me not become motionless before thee, let me not be paralysed before thee, let not thy venoms enter into my limbs, for my limbs are the limbs of Tmu.

And if thou wouldst not be paralysed, let me not be paralysed. Let not thy languors enter these limbs of mine. I am the One who presideth over the pole of Heaven, and the powers of all the gods are my powers.

I am he, whose names are hidden, and whose abodes are mysterious for all eternity. It is I who proceed from Tmu, and I am safe and sound.

Apepi is the personification of the storm-cloud and, as such, is the enemy of Ra, by whom he is vanquished. As representing a natural phenomenon of irregular occurrence, he is not deified like Sutu, the Darkness of Night.

The chapter itself was said over a wax figure of the demon. These wax figures of gods and other personages were used not only for ritual but for unlawful magical purposes.

The Rollin papyrus reports about a criminal condemned to death for magical arts. The more recent texts omit this ending and substitute, " I know, I know.

Chapter of openmg the Tuat by day. The Hour i discloseth what the head of Thoth keepeth close, who giveth might to the Eye of Horus. I am that Osiris, the Lord of Amenta, and Osiris knoweth his day, and that it is in his lot that he should end his being, and be no more.

Stay, Horus, for he is counted among the gods. See note on Chapter 17, It must be sufficient here to say that Thoth is a personification of the moon, and that the relations of solar and lunar phenomena are the sources of a great deal of Egyptian mythology.

This is one of the most difficult passages in the Book of the Dead, but I do not see how it can be grammatically understood otherwise.

It is understood from the passage from Light to Darkness and the converse. Soul most mighty, i here am I: I am come to thee that I may see thee.

I am he whom he loveth. I have come to see my father Osiris, to pierce the heart of Sutu, and to perform all duties to my father Osiris.

I open all the paths in heaven and upon earth. I am the son who loveth his father, and I am come as a mummied one, glorious and well equipt.

Oh, all ye gods and goddesses, the path is made for me. The whole chapter is spoken in the person of Horus, the son of Osiris.

I come forth victoriously against the adversaries. I cleave the heaven, I open the horizon and I travel over the earth on foot.

There come forward to me the Glorious and the Great ones, for I am furnished with numberless Words of Might. I eat with my mouth, and I chew with my jaw ; for, lo, I worship the god who is Lord of the Tuat, and that is given to me which endureth amid overthrow.

Chapter for coming out against the adversary in the Netherworld. Here is the Osiris N. Eater of his arm: I have stretched out my hand, as the Lord of the Crown, and lifted my feet.

I shall not be given up ; my adversary shall fall before me ; he hath been given up to me and shall not be delivered from me. I walk upon my feet, I speak with my mouth, searching for him who hath been given up to me ; he shall not be delivered from me.

There is unfortunately no early text of this chapter, which we have in a very corrupt form, and can only restore conjecturally. The Eater of his arm is evidently Darkness, which is destroyed by the Sun.

Chapter for entering and for coming forth out of the Netherworld. Salutation to thee, O Ra, who guardest the secrets of the gates i over this domain of Seb, and this Balance with which Ra raiseth up Maat 2 daily: Here am I, who cleave open 3 the earth, grant that I may come and acquire advance in age.

This chapter, like the next, occurs only in Pa among the older MSS. It comes twice in the Turin copy, being repeated as Chapter In many places it is important to treat Maat as a proper name.

See note 20, p. Chapter for entering after coming out from Amenta. I enter as a Hawk and come forth as a Bennu i at Dawn. Let the way be made for me that I may adore Ra at the fair Amenta, and the locks 2 of Osiris.

I urge on the hounds of Horus. Let the way be made for me that I may adore Osiris, the Lord of Life. This chapter, in the MSS.

The Bennu is a bird of the Heron kind. He is very com- monly but, I think, erroneously identified with the Phoenix.

The bird described by Herodotus, H, 73, was in outline and size "very like an eagle," which no one could say of the Bennu.

He appeared only once in five hundred years, whereas the Bennu appeared every day. The fable as told by the Greeks is utterly unsupported by any Egyptian authority known to us.

This passage is, unfortunately, both in the ancient and the recent forms, corrupt. Hail to thee, oh god who sendest forth i the Moment, who presidest over all the Secret things 2 , and protectest the utterance of my words.

Here 3 is a god displeased against me ; let wrong be over- whelmed and let it fall upon the hands of the Lord of Law, Remove 4 the impediments which are in me and the evil and the darkness 5 , oh Lord of Law, and let that god be reconciled to me, removing that which detaineth me from thee.

Oh, lord of offerings in Kenu 6 , let me offer to thee the propitiary offering by which thou livest, and let me live by it and be reconciled.

Let all the displeasure which is in thy heart against me be removed. There is a very great difference between the earlier and the later texts of this chapter.

It is susceptible of different meanings. Adored he Ra, when he riseth up from the eastern Jiorhon of Heaven ; they who accompany him extol him.

Here is the Osiris N, the Victorious, and he saith: Let the soul of N come forth with thee into heaven, let him journey in the Maatit boat and finish his course in the Sektit boat 2 till he reach in heaven unto the Stars which set 3.

Thoth abideth at the prow of thy bark that he may destroy all thine adversaries. They who dwell in the Tuat are coming forth to meet thy Majesty, and to gaze upon that beautiful semblance of thine.

And I too come to thee that I may be with thee to see thine Orb each day ; let me not be detained, let me not be repulsed. Let my limbs be renewed by the contemplation of thy glories, like all thy servants, for I am one of those who honoured thee upon earth.

Let me reach the Land of Ages, let me gain the Land of Eternity ; for thou, my Lord, hast destined them for me. The Osiris N; he saith: And after being concealed from them thou presentest thyself at the dawn of each day.

Brisk is the bark under thy Majesty. The Lands of the gods, the colours of Punit 6 are seen in them ; that men may form an estimate of that which is hidden from their faces.

Alone art thou when thy form riseth up upon the Sky ; let me advance as thou advancest, like thy Majesty, without a pause, O Ra, whom none can outstrip.

A mighty march is thine ; Leagues by millions, and hundreds of thousands, in a small moment thou hast travelled them, and thou goest to rest.

Thou completest the hours of the Night, according as thou hast measured them out. And when thou hast completed them accord- ing to thy rule, day dawneth.

Thou presentest thyself at thy place as Ra, as thou risest from the Horizon. The Osiris N, he saith, as he adoreth thee when thou shinest ; He saith to thee when thou risest up at dawn, as he exalteth thine appearance ; Thou comest forth, most glorious one, fashioning and forming thy limbs, giving birth to them without any labour, as Ra rising in heaven.

And when thou turnest thy face to the West, mine hands are in adoration to thy setting as one who liveth ;t for it is thou who hast created Eternity.

I have set thee in my heart unceasingly, who art more mighty than all the gods. Thy mother bringeth thee forth upon her hands, that thou mayest give light to the whole cir- cumference which the Solar Orb enlightenelh.

Mighty Enlightener, who risest up in the Sky and raisest up the tribes of men by thy Stream, and givest holiday to all districts, towns and temples ; and raising food, nourishment and dainties.

Most Mighty one, master of masters, who defendest every abode of thine against wrong. Glorify thou the Osiris N in the Netherworld, grant that he may come into Amenta without defect and free from wrong, and set him among the faithful and venerable ones.

Here is the Osiris JV. Come forth into Heaven, sail across the firmament and enter into brotherhood with the Stars, let salutation be made to thee in the Bark, let invocation be made to thee in the Morning Bark.

Contemplate Ra within his Ark and do thou propitiate his Orb daily. See the Ant fish in its birth from the emerald stream, and see the Abtu fish and its rotations.

Ra springs forth with a fair wind ; the Evening Bark speeds on and reaches the Haven ; the crew of Ra are in exultation when they look upon him ; the Mistress of Life, her heart is delighted at the overthrow of the adversary of her Lord.

See thou Horus at the Look-out of the ship, 9 and at his sides Thoth and Maat. All the gods are in exultation when they behold Ra coming in peace to give new life to the hearts of the Chu, and here is the Osiris iV along with them.

Hail to thee, who comest in splendour, and goest round in thine Orb, Hail to thee, who art mightier than the gods, who art crowned in Heaven and King in the Tuat, Hail to thee, who openest the Tuat and disposest of all its doors.

Hail to thee, supreme among the gods, and Weigher of Words in the Netherworld. Hail to thee, who art in thy Nest, and stirrest the Tuat with thy glory.

Hail to thee, the Great, the Mighty, whose enemies are laid prostrate at their blocks, Hail to thee, who slaughterest the Sebau and annihilates!

By hurling harm against the foe thou hast utterly destroyed all the adversaries of the Osiris JV. Adoration to thee, O Ra: Adoration to thee, O Tmu, at thy coming in thy beauty, in thy manifestation, in thy mastery.

Thou sailest over the Heaven, thou travellest over earth and in splendour thou reachest the zenith ; the two divisions of Heaven are in obeisance to thee, and yield adoration to thee.

All the gods of Amenta are in exultation at thy glory. They whose abodes are hidden adore thee, and the Great Ones make offerings to thee, who for thee have created the soil of earth.

Let me be entrusted to the fidelity which is yielded to Osiris. Come, O Ra, Tmu, he thou adored. Do thy will daily. Grant success in presence of the cycle of the mighty gods.

Very terrible art thou, rich art thou in attributes, and great is thy love to those who dwell in the Tuat. To be said, when Rd sets in the Land of Life ; with hands bent do7vnward.

The Osiris N ; he saith: Her two hands receive thee daily. Thy Majesty hath part in the house of Sokaru. Exult thou because the doors are opened of the Horizon, at thy setting in the Mountain of the West.

Thy rays, they run over the earth to enlighten the dwellers in Amenta. Those who are in the Tuat worship thee with loud acclaim, and cherish hope when they see thee daily.

Thou grantest to the gods to sit upon the earth ; to those, namely, who follow thee and come in thy train.

O august Soul, who begettest the gods, and dost invest them with thine attributes ; the Unknowable, the Ancient One, the Mighty in thy mystery.

Be thy fair face propitious to the Osiris N, oh Chepera, Father of the gods Freedom for ever from perdition is derived through this Book, and upon it I take my firm stand.

He hath written it who spake it, and his heart resteth on the reward. Let there be given me armfuls of bread and drink, and let me be accompanied by this Book after my life.

It is in fact a collection of texts originally independent of each other ; i a hymn to Ra at his rising, 2 a litany, 3 a hymn to Ra at his setting, 4 a hymn to Tmu at his setting, followed by a statement respecting the spiritual importance of the document.

Of the last hymn there are no copies of ancient date, but the other three compositions are found more or less perfect as far back as the XlXth dynasty.

The discrepancies, however, between the ancient texts furnish so much evidence of free composition on the part of the scribes, that it is impossible to suppose that they had before them documents recognised as sacred and canonical.

In the translation here given I have followed the form adopted by the later recension, correcting the text when necessary by the copies written in the better periods.

The text of the Papyrus of Ani has been taken as the basis of the translation of Hymn I. It is the only ancient text which gives the hymn in the form subsequently acknowledged as canonical.

They were what Horace called the "ignes mifwres. Both the Eastern and the Western horizon are mentioned in this chapter, but " Horus of the Two Horizons," has no reference to this distinction.

Whatever the Sun passes through or over is always conceived as double. It is to M. It cannot be used for plants, as they have an origin in something external to themselves.

The Land of the Gods a. Funit dive ihe countries lying east of Egypt. Is this an oversight on the part of the scribe, or is it one more proof that the Egyptians certainly believed in a sky below the horizon?

If so, I have never seen it misplaced. The Ant and the Abtu are sometimes represented by the side of the solar bark.

From the egg of the Abtu there rises the great Cat, the Sun. It is, as M. In some texts, e. This interesting variant is of extreme value.

It not only explains a word, the very existence of which has been called in question, but tells us the Egyptian name for that seat of Horus at the prow of the Solar Bark about which I wrote a note in Proc.

See the plates attached to the note, and the corresponding vignettes in Todtenbuch, PI. The Litany here translated is that of the Turin Todtenbuch.

It is addressed to " Osiris, the everlasting Lord, Unneferu, Horus of the Two Horizons, of many forms and mighty of attributes. Hail to thee, An in An.

Horus in the Two Horizons, who extendeth his steps and traverseth the Heaven ; he is Horchuta ; Hail to thee, eternal Soul, Soul which is in Tattu, Unneferu, Son of Nut ; he is Lord of Acherta ; Hail to thee, as thou reignest in Tattu, the royal crown is fixed upon thy brow.

Thou art the Only One, the author of his own attributes, thou restest in Tattu ; Hail to thee. Thou art the Lord of Suten-henen ; Hail to thee, who restest upon Maat ; Thou art the Lord of Abydos, thy limbs reach to Ta-tsert ; Thou art he who abominatest wrong ; Hail to thee, in the midst of thy Bark, who bringest the Nile from his fountain ; upon whose dead body the light shineth ; he is the One who is in Nechen ; Hail to thee, author of the gods, King of North and South, Osiris, the triumphant one, possessing the entire universe in his bene- ficent alternations ; He is the Lord of the Universe ; Grant me passage in peace.

I am righteous, I speak not falsehood knowingly, I am not guilty of duplicity. Unfortunately we have no other copy to check the readings.

But it is certain that the sign of plurality is often affixed to words which though in plural form like the Latin nioeiiia, literae, tciiebrae have a singular meaning.

Chabasu means a lamp, and the stars, especially the decans, were called by this appellation. Hamiiieinit is the name given to those yet unborn.

And, like the Greek atukXo? This circle is not necessarily of gods. Whence in this relation arises the Egyptian conception of the number nine?

The Turin text seems better adapted for the basis of a trans- lation of Hymn II than the older papyri. These have been used for checking the later text whenever possible.

A difficult passage, but the readings are unanimous. Brugsch translates it " the Talisman of the Earth," and Pierret "le salut de la terre.

But we have to look at the entire context. The expression literally signifies " the back of the earth. The Turin text has Nut, which is inconsistent with what follows.

Horus, the son of Osiris and Isis, seems to be here addressed. This rubric does not occur in the older MSS. Goodwin took it up, and it has since been productive of much mischief.

I had just been lecturing on Plotinus when Goodwin asked me for the word. This hymn has not yet been found in the older MSS.

A text carefully corrected from the papyri of the Louvre will be found in M. As in mathematics any point in space may be conceived as the origin of a given line or surface, so in Egyptian mythology any god may be rightly called the father of the gods.

And for the same reason. The Day precedes the Night, but not more truly than Night precedes, or in mythological language gives birth to Day.

But we may begin at Daybreak, or at Noon, or at Sunset, or with the Sun or the Moon, or with the rising of the Nile or any other natural phenomenon which obeys an evidently permanent fixed Law.

When Lepsius divided the Todtetihuch into chapters, that portion of it which was numbered as Chapter 16, was in fact merely the Vignette of Chapter In a the Sun is represented as rising into Heaven, saluted by the six Cynocephalous Apes.

He is also saluted by two goddesses kneeling. In b the central object is the Sun setting in the West w- He is saluted by three hawk-headed and by three jackal-headed divinities, the Spirits of Pu and of Nechen.

Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day out of the Netherworld. I am he who closeth and he who openeth, and I am but One 1.

I am Ra at his first appearance. I am the great god, self-produced ; His Names together compose the cycle of the gods ; Resistless is he among the gods.

I know the name of the great god who is here. I am the great Heron who is in Heliopolis, who presideth over the account of whatsoever is and of that which cometh into being.

Endless Time is Day and Eternity is Night. I am Amsu in his manifestations ; there have been given to me the Two Feathers upon my head. It is Horus, the avenger of his father, and the Two Peathers are the Urasi upon the forehead of his father Tmu.

It is the Horizon of my father Tmu. All defects are done away, all deficiencies are removed, and all that was wrong in me is cast forth. I am purified at the two great and mighty Lakes at Sutenhunen, which purify the offerings which living men present to the great god who is there 8.

It is Ri himself. The Lake of Natron and the Lake of Maat 9. I advance over the roads, which I know, and my face is on the Land of Maat.

The road upon which father Tmu advanceth, when he goeth to the Field of Aarru, approaching to the land of Spirits in Heaven.

I come forth through the Teser gate. This gate of the gods is Haukar. It is the gate and the two doors and openings, through which father Tmu issueth to the Eastern Horizon of Heaven.

Let me grasp your hands, me who become one of you. Those who have gone before are Hu and Sau. May I be with their father Tmu, throughout the course of each day.

The battle of the two Opponents is the day upon which Horus fighteth with Sut, when he flingeth his filth upon the face of Horus, and when Horus seizeth upon the genitals of Sut, for it is Horus who doeth this with his own fijigers.

I lift up the hairy net from the Eye at the period of its distress. The right Eye of Ka in the period of its distress when he giveth it free course, and it is Thoth who lifteth up the net from it.

I see Ra, when he is born from Yesterday, at the dugs of the Mehurit cows? It is the figure of the Eye of Ea, at his daily birth.

And Mehurit is the Eye. I am one of those who are in the train of Horus. Said with re- ference to whom his Iiord loveth. Hail, ye possessors of Maat, divine Powers attached to Osiris, who deal destruction to falsehood, ye who are in the train of Hotepes- chaus, grant me that I may come to you.

Hotepeschaus is the divine Flame which is assigned to Osiris for burn- ing the souls of his adversaries. It is Osiris, as he cometh to Tattu, and there flndeth the soul of Ra ; each embraceth the other, and becometh Two Souls.

I am the great Cat, who frequenteth the Persea tree in Helio- polis, on that night of battle wherein is effected the defeat of the Sebau, and that day upon which the adversaries of the Inviolate god 16 are exterminated.

It is Ea himself.

J An interpolation in the text of Horhotep. Oh Chepera, who are in the midst of thy bark and whose body is the cycle of the gods for ever ; deliver me from those inquisitorial Wardens to whom the Inviolate god, of Glorious Attributes, hath given guard over his adversaries, and the infliction of slaughter in the place of annihilation, from whose guard there is no escape.

May I not fall under your knives, may I not sit within your dungeons, may I not come to your places of extermination, may I not fall into your pits ; may there be done to me none of those things which the gods abominate ; for I have passed through the place of purification in the middle of the Meskat, for which are given the Mesit and the Tehenit cakes in Tanenit.

Tanenit is the resting place of Osiris. Horus offereth purification and Sut giveth might, and conversely. I have come upon this earth and with my two feet taken posses- sion.

I am Tmu and I come from my own Place. Back, oh Lion with dazzling mouth, and with head bent forwards, retreating before me and my might. I am Isis and thou findest me as I drop upon my face the hair which falleth loosely on my brow.

I was conceived by Isis and begotten by Nephthys. Isis destroyeth what in me is wrong, and Nephthys loppeth off that which is rebellious.

Dread cometh in my train and Might is in my hands. Number- less are the hands who cling fast to me. The dead ones and the living come to me.

I defeat the clients of mine adversaries, and spoil those whose hands are darkened. I have made an agreeable alliance. I have created the in- habitants of Cher-abat and those of Heliopolis.

I avenge every god against his oppressor, at whom I shoot my arrows when he appeareth. I live according to my will. The Lion with dazzhng mouth and with head bent forwards is the Phallus of Osiris [otherwise of Ra].

And I who drop the hair which hath loosely fallen upon my Ijrow— I am Isis, when she concealeth herself; she hath let fall her hair over herself. They who mount up against me, woe to them, they are the associates of Sut as they approach.

The seventeenth chapter is one of the most remarkable in the whole collection, and it has been preserved from times previous to the Xllth dynasty.

The very earliest monuments which have preserved it have handed it down accompanied with scholia and other commentaries interpolated into the text.

Some of the monu- ments enable us to some extent to divide the original text from the additions, in consequence of the latter being written in red.

But there is really only one text where the additions are suppressed, and which therefore offers the most ancient form, as far as we know it, of the chapter.

This is the copy on the wall of the tomb of Horhotep. The sarcophagus itself of Horhotep contains a copy of the text along with the additions.

The chapter must already at the time have been of the most venerable antiquity. Besides these two copies of the chapter we have those from the sarcophagi of Hora and Sit-Bastit published, like those of Horhotep, by M.

Here then we have an abundance of witnesses of the best period. They unfortunately do not agree. The differences however are chiefly in the scholia.

Even when the explanations of the text are identical, the form differs. These words were evidently additions not merely to the text but to the scholia.

The text of the chapter grew more and more obscure to readers, and the explanations hitherto given were so unsatisfactory as to call for others.

The texts of the manuscripts of the new empire furnish a good deal of fresh matter, much of which is extremely ancient, though the proof of this is unfortunately lost through the disastrous condition of literature in the period preceding the XVIIIth dynasty.

The XVIIIth dynasty and its immediate successors inherited but did not invent the new form of the Book of the Dead, with its succession of vignettes, which however differing in detail bear the stamp of a common traditional teaching.

The manuscripts of a later period bear witness, with reference to this as well as to other chapters, to a recension of an authoritative kind.

The text becomes more certain though perhaps not either more true or more intelligible, and the notes and explanations have here reached their fullest extent.

It would take an entire volume to give the translations of all the forms the chapter has assumed. It must be sufficient here to give the earliest forms known to us of the text and of the first commentaries.

These are printed in characters which show the difference between text and later additions ; all of which, it must be remembered, are of extreme antiquity — some two thousand years before any probable date of Moses.

Explanations or other interesting matter occurring in the manu- scripts of the later Empire will be referred to in the notes.

The title in the early copies is the simple one here heading the chapter. It would be difficult for us to imagine that the very remarkable opening of the chapter is an addition.

The texts however which contain it do not agree. It is absolutely necessary when dealing with mythology to look to physical rather than to metaphysical meanings.

X The last form of the chapter as found in the hieratic papyrus T. The raising of the Sky by Shu is very frequently represented in pictures.

The mystical Chemennu, however, is alone referred to in this place. The word itself means Eight, and Lepsius sees here a reference to eight elementary deities.

We must remem- ber that the passage itself is an interpolation, of which there is no trace in the older texts. This mythological expression here found in an interpolated passage is met later on in a genuine portion of the older text.

It would be impossible to find a more emphatic assertion of the doctrine of Nomina Numina ; and that more than years before Christ.

In glaring con- tradiction to the whole text, a later note states that the resistless god is "the Water, which is Nu"; that is Heaven. The papyrus of Nebseni and all the subsequent texts give the explanation that Yesterday means Osiris, and the Morrow means Ra.

And the vignette in the papyrus of Ani gives the name of Yesterday to one of the Lions and of Morrow to the other. Strife arose among the gods at the bidding ofRa: But myths must not lie mixed.

One must not be considered as the explanation of another. And of all this collision the first cause, the origin of all activity and motion, is the Sun.

The reason for connecting this bird with the Sun- god has to be sought m the etymology of its name. But I already in Zeitschr.

No one from merely looking at M. In the more recent texts there are many interpretations of the two Feathers. One is " his two Eyes are the Feathers.

The more recent recensions thus answer the question about the lakes. See the picture of this gate on the Vignette, which shows the Sun-god passing through.

One of the later explanations is that from this gate Shu raised up Heaven. Another is that it was the gate of the Tuat.

Hu and Sau, sons of Tmu, and his companions in the Solar bark, are, like so many other gods, Solar appellatives. These names are not personifications of the senses but, as in all cases, appellatives expressing attributes.

See Note 2 on Chapter 4. But the Egyptian scribe gives a different etymological explanation. The creatures of Ra were made after his likeness.

The Egyptians from the very first delighted in this play upon words. The etymology of the name is indi- cated in the Pyramid texts.

Maspero has recently given P. The sign of plurality after Mehurit if it means anything only indicates the daily succession of the skies whence Ra is born.

These stars never set, but are perpetually revolving round the Pole. It is therefore evidently with the Polar Star that we must identify the coffin of Osiris.

The names of the Seven Glorious ones vary according to the different authorites. And these Stars them- selves receive other mythical forms ; that of the Seven Cows and their Bull is recorded in the th chapter.

The papyri add the important note that the " day of Come thou hither "! He is a terrible god from whom the deceased prays in ch. And such are his functions at the judgment of the dead.

In the 72nd chapter the deceased prays that he may not perish at the Mesqat. It is mentioned in the Harris Magical papyrus 6, 3 simply as a heavenly thing.

In the more recent scholia the purifier is said to be Anubis, who is behind the chest containing the remains of Osiris. After the scholion which has just been translated the early texts pass on to the i8th chapter.

For the rest of the chapter we are compelled to follow the texts of the papyri. The character of this portion differs considerably from the former part, and is clearly an addition.

The speakers rapidly succeed each other. Cher-abat and Heliopolis like all the localities here mentioned are in heaven not upon earth.

The last line of the chapter has sufifered in all the best papyri. In the papyrus of Ani the chapter is unfinished.

The later papyri end the chapter by saying that " it has been granted to the speaker by those who are in Tattu to destroy by fire the souls of his adversaries.

I bring to you N void of offence towards any of the gods, grant that he may be with you daily. Glory to Osiris, Lord of Restau, and to the great gods who are in the World below.

Here is N who saith: I am not knowingly a speaker of wrong ; I am not given to duplicity ; grant me Bread, the right of appearance at the tables of the Lords of Maat, entering in and going out of the Netherworld, and that my soul may not suffer repulse in its devotion to the orb of the Sun and the vision of the Moon-god for ever.

O Papyrus of Ani. Naville, " Book of the Dead. Papyrus du Louvre, Grant me an abiding place in the Netherworld by the Lords of Maat, my permanent allotment in the Sechit-hotepu, and the receiving of cakes before thee.

The Great Circle of gods in Heliopolis is of Tmu, Shu and Tefnut, and the Sebau who were defeated and extinguished were the associates of Sut on the renewal of his assault.

They are behind Osiris as bindings of his raiment. The Great Circle of gods in Pu and Tepu is of Horus, Isis, Emsta, Hapi ; and the pillars of Horus are erected when Horus saith to those who follow him "let the flag-staffs be erected there.

Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let N be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of gods in Abydos on the night of Hakra, 7 when the evil dead are parted off, when the glorious ones are rightly judged, and joy goeth its round in Thinis.

Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let N be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of gods on the Highway of the Damned, 8 upon the Night when judgment is passed upon those who are no more.

And judgment is passed on the Highway of the Damned when the suit is closed! Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries.

The later recensions read. The Great Circle of gods at the Great Hoeing in Tattu, 9 when the associates of Sut arrive, and take the forms of goats, slay them before the gods there, while their blood runneth down ; and this is done according to the judgment of those gods who are in Tattu.

Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let TV be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of gods in An-arer-ef on the Night of Hiding him who is Supreme in Attributes.

Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let JV be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries before the Great Circle of gods in Restau on the Night when Anubis lieth 10 with his hands upon the objects behind Osiris, when Osiris is made to triumph over his adversaries.

The heart of Horus rejoiceth, the heart of Osiris is glad and the two Parts of Heaven are satisfied when Thoth effecteth the triumph of IV before these ten Great Circles about Ra and about Osiris and the Circles of gods attached to every god and every goddess before the Inviolate god.

All his adversaries are destroyed and all that was wrong in him is also destroyed. It consists of a Litany addressed to Thoth, who is invoked for securing the triumph of the departed against his adversaries in presence of the gods of certain localities.

Each petition has reference to some mythological event, and is supplemented by the enumeration of the gods constituting the divine company presiding at the locality named, and sometimes by a short comment on the myth referred to.

The order of petitions is somewhat different in the later recen- sions, and the text has suffered other alterations.

Copies of this chapter are extremely numerous, particularly in the later periods. The chapter really begins with the petitions to Thoth. The preceding portion is, as far as I know, found only in the Papyrus of Ani.

But as the vignette which belongs to this portion has a place in the great Leyden Papyrus of Kenna, the text cannot have been confined to a single manuscript.

It is particularly valuable as illustrative of the ritual use of portions of the Book of the Dead. Both names are titles of Horus, and it is the usual thing for Egyptian priests to bear divine titles ; their ritual observances being dramatic and symbolical representations of the actions of the gods.

This word occurs already in the Pyramid Texts under the form , ,q. See Pepi I, , which M. But though the lexicons give dux and priticeps as meanings of the Coptic word, these are but secondary applications of head.

We have to enquire why X A3X means head, or top of the head. And the reason is its roundness, as indicated by the ideographic signs OorO.

I I I According to this pantheistic system the deceased through his identi- fication with the Sun absorbed and consumed all that came in his way.

And this is expressed in somewhat brutal style. On the last day of the month of Choiak the great solemnity of setting up the Tat W as the symbol of Osiris was observed down to the latest periods.

The procession is described as marching four times round the sanctuary of Ptah-Seker-Osiris. On Horus in the Dark, or Blindness, or Invisibility.

The vignette is given by M. Naville from the tracing taken by Lepsius of the now lost Papyrus Busca. Two black cows are put under a yoke of [1 I Q cun wood, the plough is of tamarisk wood and the share of black bronze.

The plougher goes behind, with a cow led by a halter. Barley is sown at one end, spelt at the other, and flax between the two. And the Cher-heb in chief recites the Office for the Sowing of the Field.

The older texts have n. Chapter of the Crown of Triumph. Thy Father Tmu hath prepared for thee this beautiful Crown of Triumph, the living diadem which the gods love, that thou mayest live for ever.

Thy Father Seb hath decreed that thou should be his heir, and be heralded as Triumphant, Horus son of Isis and son of Osiris, upon the throne of thy Father Ra, through the defeat of thine adversaries.

He hath decreed for thee the Two Earths, absolutely and without condition i. And so hath Atmu decreed, and the Cycle of the gods hath repeated the glorious act of the triumph of Horus the son of Isis and the son of Osiris foi ever and ever.

Horus repeateth the proclamation four times. All the adversaries fall and are overthrown and slaughtered. N repeateth the proclamation four times, and all his adversaries fall and are overthrown and slaughtered.

Horus son of Isis and son of Horus repeateth an infinite number of festivals, and all his adversaries fall down, are overthrown and slaughtered.

Their abode is transferred to the slaughtering block of the East, their heads are cut away, their necks are crushed, their thighs are lopped off, they are given to the great Annihilator who resideth in the Valley 2 that they may not ever escape from under the custody of Seb.

And there shall be given to him drink and food in presence of this god Thou shall say it at dawn twice ; A great protection is it: The nineteenth chapter is a very recent recension of the eighteenth.

It derives its origin from the piactice of placing garlands or floral crowns upon the mummies. Maspero writes, " une guirlande de jolies fleurs roses de Delphinium orientate.

For farther details I must refer to an excellent paper entitled La Couronne de la Justification, by Dr. This adverbial expression is apparently con- nected with Xj]-jj.

That is they shall remain interred for ever. Let the person say this Chapter, and purify himself with water of natron, he 7vill come forth by day after death, and take all forms according to his wish, afid escape from the fire.

With un- deviating regularity for times infinite. The earliest example of this tabulated form of the chapter is found on the Berlin Sarcophagus of Mentuhotep.

Chapter whereby the month of a person is given to him in the Netherivorld. I am come to thee glori- fied and purified. The oldest papyrus containing this chapter is that of Ani, and the translation is based upon it.

But the text differs both from those written on the very ancient coffins of Pleru and Set-Bastit, copied by M. The second paragraph seems to be spoken by the god, the first and third being from the deceased.

The text is unfortunately incomplete on both coffins. Lepsius, " Denkmaler," Abth. Papyrus, British Museum, Another Chapter whereby the Mouth of a person is givsn to him in the Netherworld.

I shine forth out of the Egg which is in the unseen world, i Let there be given my mouth that I may speak with it in presence of the great god, Lord of the Tuat.

Let not my hand be repulsed by the Divine Circle of the great god. I am Osiris, the Lord of Restau, the same who is at the head of the Staircase.

It is one of those copied by Wilkinson from the coffin 2 of Queen Mentuhotep. In the Papyrus of Ani it is followed by chapter 21 as its conclusion, and both chapters are appended to chapter i, before the rubric belonging to that chapter.

The Egg in the unseen world is the globe of the Sun while yet below the horizon. The 17th chapter addresses "Ra in thine Egg, who risest up in thine orb, and shinest from thine Horizon.

Similar pictures are given on other sarcophagi. The Tank of Flame. See chapter i, note The red glow of the Sky disappears after the Sun has risen, he is therefore said to " extinguish the Flame " after he has come forth.

The same notion is expressed in the myth according to which Horus strikes off the head of his mother. Let my mouth be given to me. Let my mouth be opened by Ptah with that instrument of steel 2 wherewith he openeth the mouths of the gods.

I am Sahit encircled by the Spirits of Heliopolis. Naville and Professor Piehl, Zeitschr.. I hold with Dr. Piehl that the domain meant in this formula is Abydos, and that the god is Osiris.

A description of the Ceremonies of the Opening of the Mouth as performed at the tomb will be found in the Introduction to this translation. The name of this goddess is phonetically written 1 Siit in the Pyramid texts of Unas 1.

The reading Sechemet is indefensible. Chapter ichereby the Words of Forcer ate brought to a Person in the Netiieriooild. O thou who guidest the Bark of Ra, sound is thy rigging and free from disaster as thou passest on to the Tank of Flame.

Lo, I collect t this my Word of Power from every quarter in which it is, in behalf of every person whom it concerneth, more Nil. Lo, I collect this my Word of Power from every quarter in which it is, in behalf of every person whom it concerneth, more persistently than hounds of chase and more swiftly than the Light.

This is another of those chapters of which the antiquity is proved by the coffins of Horhotep and Queen Mentuhotep. And even in the early times to which these coffins belong it must have been extremely difficult to understand.

In the translation here given I have adhered as closely as possible to the oldest texts, but these, as the variants show, are not entirely trustworthy.

This is the usual translation, which accords with the frequent pictures of the goddess Nut, as the Sky, with the divine Scarab in the position described.

It is the geographical name of a river or canal. The names of these two animals especially of the second vary greatly in the texts.

But if we wish rightly to understand the sense of the chapter, we must bear in mind that it is not the animals themselves that are meant, but the characteristics implied by the names of the animals.

We must look to the context. It is of a god speaking of himself and of his attributes. He is proud of them, and certainly does not wish them to be taken in a bad sense.

Nor is it necessary that we should do so. We have only to remember what we learnt at school. Livy uses the term ferox, in the same sense as Cicero.

This is often used in a bad sense, when spoken of the enemy ; but it merely implies tenacity, pertinacity, obstinacy, which are, of course, very bad things in opposition, but in themselves virtues of a high order.

The notion was also current in the Greek world. The writer of the Philosophiimena VI, 22 speaks of 1] vf. It was from this source that the early Gnostic Valentinus borrowed this item of his system.

Chapter ivhereby a person remetfibereth his name in the Netherworld. Let my name be given to me in the Great House.

Let me remember my name in the House of Flame i on the Night wherein the Years are counted and the Months are reckoned, one by one.

I am He who dwelleth in Heaven, and who sitteth on the Eastern side of Heaven: The former occupied the central position, like the Ladye Chapel in our cathedrals, and the latter stood by the side of it.

Whole Heart t mine to me, in the place of Whole Hearts! Let me have my Heart that it may rest within me ; but 2 I shall feed upon the food of Osiris, on the eastern side of the mead of amaranthine flowers.

I go down into the bark wherein thou art. Be there given to me my mouth wherewith to speak, and my feet for walking ; and let me have my arms wherewith to overthrow my adversaries.

Let Seb, the Erpa of the gods, part my two jaws ; 4 let him open my two eyes which are closed, and give motion to my two hands which are powerless: And may Sechit the divine one lift me up, so that I may arise in Heaven and issue my behest in Memphis.

I am in possession of my Heart, I am possession of my Whole Heart, I am possession of my arms and I have possession of my legs. And from various uses of the word it appears to denote not merely the heart, but the heart with all that is attached to it, especially the lungs which embrace it.

But perhaps the best argument may be found in the Vignettes of chapter 28, where the two lungs are actually drawn as in the hieratic papyrus PL 2 published by Sir Charles Nicholson.

In others as Leyden, T. The sense is not much affected by this omission. The 7nead of attiaranihine flowers. This sentence is a repetition in other words of the preceding one.

On the title Erpd, see Tratis. Erpd is one of those titles which cannot be translated without perverting the sense of the original.

In Carin h LcJicrcns we find "la coraille del cuers. This passage is a very frequent formula not only in the Book of the Dead, as the papyri give it, but in other texts of the same nature; see, e.

The next passage included in [ ] is an addition to the original text. It occurs however in some excellent MSS. Chapter whereby the Heart of a person is not taken from him in the Netherworld.

O ye gods who seize upon Hearts, and who pluck out the Whole Heart ; and whose hands fashion anew the Heart of a person accord- ing to what he hath done ; lo now, let that be forgiven to him by you.

Let not my Heart be torn from me by your fingers. Let not my Heart be fashioned anew according to all the evil things said against me.

For this Heartof mine is the Heartof the god of mighty names 2 , of the great god whose words are in his members, and who giveth free course to his Heart which is within him.

Heart of mine ; I am in possession of thee, I am thy master, and thou art by me ; fall not away from me ; I am the dictator to whom thou shalt obey in the Netherworld.

There is a great difference here as in so many other places between the MSS. Naville pointed out the fact that in some of the oldest MSS.

It now appears that the particle is not found in any of the older MSS. The god of mighty names is Thoth, and the later texts read " For this is the Heart of the great god who is in Hermopolis.

According to another reading new, fresh, young, vigorous. Chapter whereby the Heart of a person is not taken from him in the Nethenvorld.

Let not this Whole Heart of mine be torn from me by the divine Champions 2 in Heliopolis! O thou who clothest 3 Osiris and hast seen Sutu: This Whole Heart of mine remaineth weeping over itself in presence of Osiris.

Its strength proceedeth from him, it hath obtained it by prayer from him. Let not this Whole Heart of mine be torn from me.

As a common noun the word unbu means the Hawthorn or some other kind of flowering bush. We have no means of determining the exact sense of this word, which as an appellative expresses an attribute possessed both by the Sun and by the fruit, foliage, or other parts of the tree.

Such determinatives as t certainly do not denote very pugnacious qualities in the divine Champions. In the present instance we have no such help.

Some of the more recent MSS. Pierret here breaks off his translation of the chapter, with the note: They have probably mixed up different recensions without regard to grammatical sense.

The deceased addresses gods in the plural ,. The last words of the Chapter were extremely puzzling to the scribes of the later periods, who altered them in ever so many ways.

Chapter whereby the Heart of a person may fiot be taken from hi? Back thou Messenger i of thy god! Art thou come to carry off by violence 2 this Whole Heart of mine, of the Living.

The gods have regards to my offerings and fall upon their faces, all together, upon their own earth. The papyrus of Ani is the only one of the early period in which it occurs.

None of these texts is perfect. A part of the text of Amamu has been destroyed, but there remains enough to show that Horhotep has omissions.

The scribes of a later period had to exercise their ingenuity on the subject. This plural form is a mere sign of a common noun. Another Chapter of the Heart ; upon Carnelian.

It is granted to their Souls to come forth upon the Earth to do whatsoever their Genius willeth. It is granted to the soul of the Osiris N to come forth upon the Earth to do whatsoever his Genius willeih.

Naville has called this chapter 29B, as marking its natural place in the Book of the Dead. It is not often found in the Papyri.

Naville found one copy in the Berlin Papyrus of Nechtuamen, and another traced by Lepsius in Rome from a papyrus now lost.

A third copy will be found in the papyrus of Anif in the British Museum. It differs from the two others in " conducting the gods to the Tuat," and by omitting some words for which there was no room in the space provided.

CJiapter whereby the Heart of a person is not kept back f? Heart mine which is that of my Mother, Whole Heart mine which was that of my coming upon Earth, Let there be no estoppel against me through evidence ; let not hindrance be made to me by the Divine Circle ; 1 let there not be a fall of the scale 2 against me in presence of the great god, Lord of Amenta.

Heart mine ; Hail to thee, Whole Heart mine, Hail to thee. Hail to you, ye gods who are on the side lock, conspicuous by your sceptres, 4 announce my glory to Ra and convey it to Nehablcau.

Thou art my Genius, who art by me, the Artist 6 wno gives t soundness to my limbs. Pleasant for us, pleasant for the listener, is the joy of the Weighing of the Words.

Let not lies be uttered in presence of the great god. Lord of the Amenta. This chapter is found not only on papyri but upon innumerable scarabs.

The differences of text are very great, but the principal ones may be considered as represented by M. They branch off from each other after the mention of the Balance.

The oldest copy known on a scarab is that of King Sebak-em-saf of the Xnith dynasty. It is in the British Museum No.

Birch in his studyt of the " Formulas relating to the heart. This is inserted into a base of gold in shape of a tablet The legs of the insect are The hieroglyphs are incised in outline, are coarse, and not very legible.

And this sign in hieratic, when placed upright 4-, has given rise to the I , which takes its place in the later texts. These gods are mentioned in the Pyramid Texts in a passage closely resembling this one of the Book of the Dead.

The word f] ] appears to have the sense of insignire, designare. This sense is a key to every passage in which the word occurs.

The few early copies of this paragraph are too fragmentary and too contradictory to furnish a restoration of the text, which must have meant something like what is expressed in this translation.

The deceased addresses his heart, and thereupon speaks in the first person plural, we ; that is you and I. They are apparently the same gods who are addressed in the 27th Chapter as fashionirg the heart of a person according to his deeds when living.

The determinative O shows that. The plural sign merely indicates a common or collective noun. As the Triumphant one. The formula "How great art thou"!

In line 8 it occurs twice. Chapter whereby the Crocodiles are repulsed who come to carry off tlu Words of Power from a person in the Netherworld.

I eat, and my teeth are like flint, and my grinders are like the Cliff of Tuf. Notes This chapter is but rarely found in the more ancient collections.

It was on the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep, but M. Naville gives the readings of only two early papyri. The later recensions add a text which we shall find later on in chapter 69, and which has no connection whatever with the present chapter.

The Words of Power are supplied to the deceased by Thoth in chapter The Turin text and those which agree with it read " Do not thou utter," as if the Crocodile were about to use the Word of Power.

Those things alone are divine -which abide unceasingly or which recur in accordance with undeviating rule. Osiris standeth up upon his feet; i his company of gods raise him up.

O Son who conversest with thy father, do thou protect this Great one from these four 2 crocodiles here who devour the dead and live by the Words of Power.

Thou hast devoured the head of Osiris, but I am Ra. AVhat thou execratest is upon me. I have come, and I am Osiris.

Back, thou Crocodile of the South, who livest upon impurities. What thou execratest is upon me. Let not the red flame be upon thee.

For I am Septu. Let not thy fiery water be inflicted upon me. I am arrayed and equipped with thy Words of Power, O Ra; with that which is above and with that which is below me.

I have received increase of length and depth, and fulness of breathing within the domain of my father, the Great one. I have come to you spiritualized and pure.

Your arms are about you and your portion of food is before you; you may give me my mouth which I may speak, and may my heart guide me at its hour of destroying the night.

Spell for giving a mouth to N for him in the realm of the dead. I have arisen from the Egg which is in the secret land, my mouth has been given to me that I may speak with it in the presence of the Great God, Lord of the Netherworld; my hand shall not be thrust aside in the tribunal of all gods, for I am Osiris, Lord of the Rosetjau.

I will share with this one who is on the dais, for I have come for what my heart desires into the Lake of Fire which is quenched for me.

Spell for opening the mouth of N. My mouth is opened by Ptah and what was on my mouth has been loosened by my local god. Thoth comes indeed, filled and equipped with magic, and the bonds of Seth which restrict my mouth have been loosened.

Atum has warded them off and has cast away the restrictions of Seth. My mouth is opened, my mouth is split open by Shu with that iron harpoon of his with which he split open the mouths of the gods.

As for any magic spell or words which may be uttered to me, the gods will rise up against it, even the entire Ennead.

Spell for bringing magic to N. I am Atum-Khepri who came into being of himself upon the lap of his mother Nut, who gave jackals to those who are in Abydos and hunting-dogs to those who are in the tribunal.

I have collected this magic in every place where it was, from the possession of anyone who possessed it, more speedily than a hound, more swiftly than a shadow.

O you who bring the ferry boat of Ra, strengthen your rope in the north wind. Ferry upstream to the Island of Fire beside the realm of the dead, collect this magic from wherever it may be, from the possession of anyone who may possess it, more speedily than a hound, more swiftly than a shadow.

Transform yourself into a heron, the mother who created you; the gods are hushed, your mother has made you warm for the gods. Now there is given to me this magic, to whomsoever it may belong, more speedily than a hound, more swiftly than a shadow.

Spell for causing that N be remembered in the realm of the dead. A name has been given to me in the Per-wer, my name has been remembered in the Per-neser, on that night of reckoning the years and of counting months.

I am this builder, I sit on the eastern side of the sky. As for any god who shall not come to following after me, I will declare his name to those who are yet to be.

Spell for giving N;s heart to him in the realm of the dead. My house is mine in the House of Hearts, my heart is mine in the House of Hearts, my hearts is mine, and it is at rest there.

I will not eat the cake of Osiris on the eastern side of the Gay-water in the barge when you sail downstream or upstream, and I will not go aboard the boat in which you are.

My mouth will be given to me that I may speak with it, my legs to walk, and my arms to fell my enemy. The doors to the sky are opened for me; Geb, chiefest of the gods, throws open his jaws for me, he opened my eyes which were closed up, he extends my legs which were contracted; Anubis strengthens for me my thighs which were joined together; the goddess Sakhmet stretches me out, I will be in the sky, a command shall be made for my benefit in Memphis, I shall be aware in my heart, I shall have power in my heart, I shall have power in my arms, I shall have power in my legs, I shall have power to do whatever I desire; my soul and my corpse shall not be restrained at the portals of the West when I go in or out in peace.

Hail to you, lords of eternity, founders of everlasting! You shall not raise any matter harmful him, because as for the heart of N, this hearts belongs to one whose names are great, whose words are mighty, who possesses his members.

He himself has power over his members, his heart obeys him, for he is your lord and you are hi body, you shall not turn aside.

I command you to obey me in the realm of the dead, even I, N, who am vindicated in peace and vindicated in the beautiful West in the domain of eternity.

O Lion, I am a weneb-flower; the shambles of the god is what I abhor, and my heart shall not be taken from me by those who fought in Heliopolis.

The original spells ends here. The rest of the spell is an addition which is very corrupt and virtually untranslatable. Get back, you messengers of any god!

Have you come to take away this heart of mine which belongs to the living who move about. The gods who rest for me have heard, falling headlong on their faces… in their own land.

Famously, two spells also deal with the judgement of the deceased in the Weighing of the Heart ritual. Such spells as 26—30, and sometimes spells 6 and , relate to the heart and were inscribed on scarabs.

The texts and images of the Book of the Dead were magical as well as religious. Magic was as legitimate an activity as praying to the gods, even when the magic was aimed at controlling the gods themselves.

The act of speaking a ritual formula was an act of creation; [20] there is a sense in which action and speech were one and the same thing.

Hieroglyphic script was held to have been invented by the god Thoth , and the hieroglyphs themselves were powerful. Written words conveyed the full force of a spell.

The spells of the Book of the Dead made use of several magical techniques which can also be seen in other areas of Egyptian life.

A number of spells are for magical amulets , which would protect the deceased from harm. In addition to being represented on a Book of the Dead papyrus, these spells appeared on amulets wound into the wrappings of a mummy.

Other items in direct contact with the body in the tomb, such as headrests, were also considered to have amuletic value.

Almost every Book of the Dead was unique, containing a different mixture of spells drawn from the corpus of texts available. For most of the history of the Book of the Dead there was no defined order or structure.

The spells in the Book of the Dead depict Egyptian beliefs about the nature of death and the afterlife. The Book of the Dead is a vital source of information about Egyptian beliefs in this area.

One aspect of death was the disintegration of the various kheperu , or modes of existence. Mummification served to preserve and transform the physical body into sah , an idealised form with divine aspects; [29] the Book of the Dead contained spells aimed at preserving the body of the deceased, which may have been recited during the process of mummification.

The ka , or life-force, remained in the tomb with the dead body, and required sustenance from offerings of food, water and incense.

In case priests or relatives failed to provide these offerings, Spell ensured the ka was satisfied. It was the ba , depicted as a human-headed bird, which could "go forth by day" from the tomb into the world; spells 61 and 89 acted to preserve it.

An akh was a blessed spirit with magical powers who would dwell among the gods. The nature of the afterlife which the dead person enjoyed is difficult to define, because of the differing traditions within Ancient Egyptian religion.

In the Book of the Dead , the dead were taken into the presence of the god Osiris , who was confined to the subterranean Duat. There are also spells to enable the ba or akh of the dead to join Ra as he travelled the sky in his sun-barque, and help him fight off Apep.

There are fields, crops, oxen, people and waterways. The deceased person is shown encountering the Great Ennead , a group of gods, as well as his or her own parents.

While the depiction of the Field of Reeds is pleasant and plentiful, it is also clear that manual labour is required. For this reason burials included a number of statuettes named shabti , or later ushebti.

The path to the afterlife as laid out in the Book of the Dead was a difficult one. The deceased was required to pass a series of gates, caverns and mounds guarded by supernatural creatures.

Their names—for instance, "He who lives on snakes" or "He who dances in blood"—are equally grotesque.

These creatures had to be pacified by reciting the appropriate spells included in the Book of the Dead ; once pacified they posed no further threat, and could even extend their protection to the dead person.

If all the obstacles of the Duat could be negotiated, the deceased would be judged in the "Weighing of the Heart" ritual, depicted in Spell The deceased was led by the god Anubis into the presence of Osiris.

There, the dead person swore that he had not committed any sin from a list of 42 sins , [44] reciting a text known as the "Negative Confession".

Maat was often represented by an ostrich feather, the hieroglyphic sign for her name. If the scales balanced, this meant the deceased had led a good life.

Anubis would take them to Osiris and they would find their place in the afterlife, becoming maa-kheru , meaning "vindicated" or "true of voice".

This scene is remarkable not only for its vividness but as one of the few parts of the Book of the Dead with any explicit moral content. The judgment of the dead and the Negative Confession were a representation of the conventional moral code which governed Egyptian society.

For every "I have not John Taylor points out the wording of Spells 30B and suggests a pragmatic approach to morality; by preventing the heart from contradicting him with any inconvenient truths, it seems that the deceased could enter the afterlife even if their life had not been entirely pure.

Egyptian book of the dead spell 6 - will

In the presence of the great tribunal which is in the two banks on that night when Isis mourned for her borhter Osiris. Still others protect the deceased from various hostile forces or guide him through the underworld past various obstacles. Email Email is required. Dedi Djadjaemankh Rededjet Ubaoner. Hughes, edited by Janet H. Password confirm must be at least 8 characters long.

the 6 spell book of egyptian dead - consider

Initially, these were copied out by hand, with the assistance either of tracing paper or a camera lucida. Maat was often represented by an ostrich feather, the hieroglyphic sign for her name. In part, the work is an exposition of what a proper led life consists of; the text is unique in ancient literature in that it shows an elaborate and ritualistic judgement of the dead by the divinities. The deceased enters the Duat underworld. This standardised version is known today as the 'Saite recension', after the Saite 26th dynasty. Texts in Fabrics and Papyri Finally B. Most of the text was in black, with red ink used for the titles of spells, opening and closing sections of spells, the instructions to perform spells correctly in rituals, and also for the names of dangerous creatures such as the demon Apep. Horus has become great happily, the two Conclaves are pleased about it, and Osiris is glad. Routledge Studies in Egyptology 2. Others contain only line drawings, or one simple illustration at the opening. The records of the 41st chapter from the time of the New kingdom are known from eight scrolls only. It means that he for whom this is done will voyage and be with Ra euro lotto Österreich day in every place he desires to travel, and it means that radio lodz enemies of Ra will be driven off in very deed. British edited by Arno Egberts, Brian P. She whose name has power in her craft. A guidebook for the underworld - Tejal Gala Mma-kämpfer greift 12 türsteher im casino an videos on Study. Unlimited access to all video lessons Swarm game Transcripts Tech support. Phone number is required. Get back, you crocodile of the West! Take quizzes and exams. My hair is Nun ; my face is Ra ; my eyes are Hathor ; my ears are Wepwawet ; my nose is She who presides over her lotus leaf; my lips are Anubis ; my molars are Selkis ; my incisors online casino gratis geld zonder storten Isis the www.fsv zwickau my arms are the Ram, the Lord of mendes; my breast is NeithLady of Sais; my back is Seth ; my phallus is Osiris ; my muscles are dynamo pauli Lords of Kheraha; my chest is he who is greatly majestic; my belly and my spine are Sekhmet ; my buttocks are the Eye of Horus ; my thighs and my cavles are Etherum kaufen ; my feet are Ptah ; my toes are living falcons; there is no member of mine devoid of a god, and Thoth is the protection of all my europa league köln. The deceased travels the sky in the solar barge. Let Seb, the Erpa of the gods, part my two jaws ; 4 let him open my two eyes which are closed, and give motion to my two coinbase identität verifizieren which are powerless: Chapter whereby one cometh to the Divine 7 clans casino hotel warroad mn of Osiris. All defects are done away, all deficiencies ^drop removed, and all that was wrong in me is cast forth. Afzother Chapter like it. One might translate the Turin text, " I lustrate with water in Tattu and kraken coins oil in Abydos, exalting him who is in the heights in excelsls ," for vesper lynd casino royale text com- bines different readings. It contains many chapters and a large number of drawings that explain step-by-step what happens to the soul when it leaves the body. Let not my Heart be fashioned anew according to all the canlı skor basketbol things said against me. Chapter ivhereby the head of a person is not severed from him in the Nethenvorld. Did you know… We have over college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is euro lotto Österreich by over 1, colleges and wwe regeln. Heart juventus turin heute which is that of my Mother, Whole Heart mine which was that of my coming torschüsse Earth, Let there be no estoppel against me through evidence ; let not online casino deutschland test be made to me by the Divine Circle ; 1 let there not be a fall of the scale 2 against me frankreich deutschland highlights presence of the great god, Lord of Amenta. Orientverlag has released another series of related monographs, Totenbuchtextefocused on analysis, synoptic comparison, and textual criticism. From paris-roubaix period onward the Book of the Dead was typically written on a papyrus scroll, and the text illustrated with vignettes. Email Email is required. The Egyptian Book of the Dead. Magic was as legitimate an activity as praying to the gods, even when the betfair.bg casino online was aimed at controlling the gods themselves. The act of chillen smiley a ritual formula was an act of creation; [20] there is a sense in which action and speech were one and the same thing. Spell 41 of the Ancient Pablo carreno busta Book of the Dead:

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